In the first quarter of 2014, a proposal to write an NCRP report on “Radiation Protection Guidance for the United States” was approved by the BOD, as well as formation of Council Committee (CC) 1. The report will update and expand NCRP Report No. 116, Radiation Protection Guidance for the United States. NCRP Report No. 116 is over 20 y old and substantial advances in radiation effects knowledge, as well as radiation protection understanding and culture, have occurred. In these times of change, there is a pressing need to update NCRP guidance with regard to radiation protection as it pertains to the United States.
New knowledge has been obtained on radiation effects at doses lower than apparent in 1993. Noncancer effects such as cardiovascular disease and cataracts are emerging as potentially important concerns. Ethics and the severity of health outcomes have not been addressed in a context of radiation protection. The Fukushima nuclear reactor accident and the ever-rising increase in population exposure to radiologic imaging examinations [computed tomography (CT) examinations, positron emission tomography scans, and nuclear medicine procedures] have increased the awareness of the importance of radiation protection guidance in the United States.
In 2007, ICRP published an update of their recommendations (ICRP Publication 103). Subsequently an important ICRP report on deterministic effects and noncancer effects was published in 2013 (ICRP Publication 118). Nonetheless, while the goals for radiation protection in the United States are the same as those for the international community, there are differences in degree and approach to obtaining these goals [i.e., in implementing the three pillars of radiation protection of justification, optimization (as low as reasonably achievable), and limitation].
CC 1 will consider, but not be limited to, the issues listed below. It is recognized that once the Committee is formed, areas of focus will be reviewed and prioritized such that some areas might be dropped and others added.
- Noncancer effects such as cardiovascular disease: Should such effects be considered and incorporated into detriment equations?
- Effect of age at exposure: Because it is generally accepted that younger workers are more susceptible to future cancer development because of their greater life expectancy than older workers, should there be a concern about exposures in these earlier years versus those later in life where there is less chance of expression and possibly lower radiation risk?
- Effect of sex: In a broader sense, should there be considerations of actually using different sex models for computation of effective dose? Currently the convention is to combine the male and female sex-specific risk into a hermaphroditic age and sex weighted, computational phantom for computing effective dose, the unit of compliance used in the regulatory systems. Conceivably the models could be separated and effective dose computed using female parameters for women and male parameters for males.
- Genetic susceptibility: The issues of age and sex differences raised the issue of the role of genetic susceptibility in risk. How does or should one account for these? How do differences in sex and age and possible genetic susceptibility factor into the regulatory process? These questions are being raised at the environmental level as well as in certain specialized groups (e.g., astronauts).
- Severity of the radiation effect: The issue of severity of disease in the context of radiation health detriment will be considered. A parallel commentary will be addressing this issue for cataracts and it will be expanded for other cancers (e.g., thyroid) and noncancer conditions.
- Treatability: Current risk estimates used in radiation protection are based in large part on mortality of persons exposed many years ago when curative treatments were less effective today. Should these changes in fatality be considered in the system of protection? Are cancer incidence data sufficiently robust to consider in place of mortality data?
- As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA): A more robust evaluation of the concept of ALARA, recognizing that systems of protection stress the limitation of cumulative risk, will be considered. NCRP recommends 10 mSv times age while ICRP recommends 20 mSv y–1. These approaches reduce the likelihood of cumulative exposures approaching or exceeding 1 Sv. Issues of ALARA and their effective application in limiting cumulative dose will be addressed in contrast to circumstances where doses may not be effectively mitigated because of the occupations involved (e.g., in the medical areas).
- Risk versus dose: Should radiation protection guidance be based on risk to an individual, taking into account age, sex, and genetic predisposition, and not necessarily based on dose limits per se? Perhaps changes in society and ethical paradigms might point to this consideration.
- Threshold: A more complete (but summarized) exposition of the concept of threshold (below which no observable effects are seen) would be of value. Some years ago NCRP addressed this in Report No.138.
- Dose and dose rate effectiveness factors: Several national and international organizations are addressing the issue of dose rate on future radiation detriment. Committee reports will be summarized as to their applicability to a system of radiation protection. It is noted that with support from the NRC, the ongoing Million Person Study will provide information on risk when the temporal distribution of dose is widely spaced and over a period of years. Portions of this study will be completed during the time frame for the proposed report and would be included.
- Biologically-based models: Should more biologically-based modeling be incorporated into the equations for risk assessment in the low-dose domain? Should there be more reliance on animal experiments to address issues such as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor?
- Incorporating U.S. radiation-exposed populations into risk assessment for protection: Currently protection guidance relies heavily on the 1945 Japanese atomic-bomb survivor population study. While extremely important, the cohort is small (only 86,000 with doses), the exposure was brief (less than a second) and the Japanese population lived in a war-torn country and suffered malnutrition, infection, and deprivations that could have affected subsequent disease risk. Such a population may not be strictly relevant to healthy American workers and public citizens. The Million Person Study will address the issues of comparability to the U.S. radiation-exposed populations directly.
- Energy dependent radiation weighting factors for low linear-energy transfer (LET) radiation: Consideration of different radiation weighting factors for low-LET radiation on the basis of energy should be addressed. There is some evidence, not entirely conclusive, that low energy x rays may be more biologically effective than high-energy gamma rays; whether this difference, seen in some biological systems, is applicable to carcinogenesis in humans is of current interest. It is noted that energy dependent radiation weighting factors for neutrons are presented in ICRP Publication 103.
- Weighting factors for specific nuclides or classes of radionuclide emitters: Should different radionuclides have different radiation weighting factors because of mounting evidence that they are biologically more or less effective in causing cancers in certain systems? For example, tritium may have a biological effectiveness that is somewhat greater than one in comparison with photon radiation.
- Units: The units of effective dose (rem, sievert) and equivalent dose (rem, sievert) are the same and often cause confusion not only in protection circumstances but also in risk assessment.
- Reporting and recording doses and units remains an issue of importance.
- Skin dose and hot particles: Reassessing skin dose and hot particle dose distributions in the post NCRP Report No. 116 era would be of value.
- Patient protection: The issues of patient protection are broad and of special importance now that population exposures have increased so dramatically over the past several decades. The issues will be effectively summarized, from diagnostic reference levels to emergency medicine to unnecessary screening procedures. Constant vigilance is necessary to reduce unnecessary diagnostic exposures and to ensure that the lowest radiation exposure is used to achieve the optimal, clinically-valuable image. The special consideration with new proton and ion therapy treatments for cancer will be addressed.
- A revision and/or reassessment of NCRP Report No. 115 (Risk Estimates for Radiation Protection): This would address, explicitly, the effect of age at exposure and the effect of sex on risk. Whether those differences can or should be specifically incorporated in dose constraint or dose limit recommendations includes both ethical and practicality considerations. Such a revision would hopefully resolve the question of (or at least shine a brighter light on) noncancer risks and whether they should be incorporated into detriment in the low-dose domain. The importance of biologically-based models in risk management will be addressed. Incorporation of relevant U.S. populations into risk assessment considerations will be addressed so that reliance is not solely based on the 1945 Japanese atomic-bomb survivor population.
The Committee was established in the second quarter of 2014. In preparation for its first full meeting, the following activities occurred:
- A teleconference (April 1, 2014) of the proposed members for initial discussions on approaches to updating NCRP Report No. 116 (published in 1993).
- A teleconference (May 5, 2014) with the Chairs of CC 1 and the Chairs of the NCRP PACs to discuss PAC Chairs involvement in the update of NCRP Report No. 116.
- An opportunistic meeting (July 17, 2014) of the available members at the 2014 Health Physics Society meeting in Baltimore to discuss a way forward on the update. A draft outline was available and out for comment.
The first meeting of the full Committee occurred on September 3–4, 2014. The principal objective of CC 1 is to produce a report that updates the basic recommendations of the NCRP published in Report No. 116 (1993), applicable to the current needs in the United States. At the meeting, the following perspectives were given as background for the deliberations of the Committee:
- NRC and ICRP Committee 4 (Cool)
- Stakeholder/Industry (Andersen)
- States (Irwin)
- EPA (Boyd)
- Medical (Mettler)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Ansari )
- Health Physics Society (Fisher)
A draft outline that was distributed prior to the meeting was reviewed. As a result of the review, a revised outline will be prepared along with preliminary assignments. It was concluded that the Chairs of the NCRP PACs should be designated as advisors to CC 1, in order to: (1) assure that the PACs are aware of CC 1 progress; and (2) facilitate active and ongoing feedback from the PACs to CC 1. The Committee also recommended that a couple of additional members be appointed to cover recognized gaps in the membership. The principal action items identified at the meeting were:
- redraft the outline and take into consideration the very productive exchanges during the meeting;
- draft an introduction to the report to help focus the purpose and scope;
- invite additional members to serve on CC 1 to fill subject matter gaps;
- generate specific language for a number of topics prior to the next meeting to capture the essence of points made during the meeting;
- identify potential supporting documents. These would be NCRP commentaries or other NCRP documents that go into greater detail on the rationale for specific recommendations made in the CC 1 report; and
- plan PAC engagement at the 2015 annual meeting.
The second meeting of CC 1 was held December 9–10, 2014 at the NCRP office in Bethesda, Maryland. The report is to describe a system of prospective radiation protection for the United States. At this second full Committee meeting, a number of preliminary write-ups were available and engendered discussion on approaches to various elements of a system of radiation protection.
As a result of the discussions during the 2 d, a revised outline and update of assignments will be prepared. It is understood that the outline for the report will continue to evolve as Committee deliberations precede.
A plan was discussed for presenting the status of CC 1 activities to the NCRP Program Area Committees (PACs) at their meetings on March 15, 2015 and for discussing the potential contributions of each of the PACs to the final CC 1 report. All CC 1 members were encouraged to attend the PAC meetings as they were able. The Committee also decided to invite an ethicist to join CC 1.
The purpose and status of CC 1 was presented to each of the PACs on March 15, 2015. The draft outline of the report was presented and the potential contributions of each PAC were discussed with the appropriate PAC.
The third meeting of CC 1 was held April 1–2, 2015 at the NCRP office in Bethesda, Maryland. The preliminary texts of many of the sections were again discussed in detail as were approaches to various elements of a system of radiation protection. In particular, two topics were discussed in more detail:
- the ICRP approach to the incorporation of radiation protection of the environment into the system of radiation protection (Higley); and
- ethics and its potential application to and incorporation into the system of radiation protection (Fleming).
As a result of the discussions during the 2 d, a further revised outline and update of assignments will be prepared. The revised draft outline will include suggestions and requests for specific tasks for each PAC and will be distributed to the PAC chairs.
The Committee believes it is a reasonable goal to have a draft ready to begin the NCRP review and approval process by early 2017. The current plan of action includes:
- present a first draft of the report to the PACs and various stakeholders during 2016 to receive reaction, comments and suggestions
- engage the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), the Health Physics Society, and the Radiation Research Society at their 2016 meetings using special sessions or symposia;
- provide NRC, EPA, DOE, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention the draft for review and comment during 2016; and
- pursue forming a joint NCRP/ICRP task group for sharing information during the development of this report.
A teleconference was held on June 30, 2015 to assess progress on drafting text for the various topics in the current outline of the report, and to discuss additional topics that may need to be included. All preliminary drafts are due by August 20, and a consolidated document will be distributed for review at the August 26–27, 2015 meeting.
The consolidated input (dated August 22, 2015) from the members was distributed prior to the meeting. As a result of the review of this input during the meeting (and the additional input from Council PACs), a number of action items were identified to further develop and focus the content of the CC 1 draft.
A consolidated input (dated November 30, 2015) from the members was distributed prior to the December 14–15, 2015 meeting. At the meeting, the existing draft text was reviewed section by section to determine the remaining text needed, responsibilities for drafting sections, and the form and extent of the contents of the various sections of the report. As a result of the review a general format was agreed that would state the recommendation(s) in the section, an explanation of the basis, and the ethical support for the recommendation(s). Written material that should be preserved as a separate report or as an appendix was identified. A number of action items were identified to further develop the content of the CC 1 first draft.
Updated next steps are:
- January 20, 2016 (or sooner) … deadline for written sections from section authors
- January 26-27, 2016 … Co-Chairs and Staff Consultant meet to edit first draft
- Around January 30, 2016 … first draft to all CC 1 members
- March 20, 2016 … deadline for comments from CC 1 members on first draft
- April 1, 2016 … first draft available for review by PACs, to share with ICRP, and made available for discussion with stakeholder organizations:
- IRPA: May 9-13, 2016 (Capetown) … presentation and possible participation on pane
- ICRP: May 15–17, 2016 (Capetown) … consult with ICRP Reflection Group
- CRCPD: May 16–19, 2016 … on program for 18 May
- UNSCEAR: June 27 – July 1, 2016 (Vienna)
- HPS: July 17–21, 2016 (Spokane)
- AAPM: July 31 – August 4, 2016 (Washington)
- RRS: October 16–19, 2016
- RSNA: November 27 – December 2, 2016 (Chicago)
On January 30, 2016, an initial draft was distributed to each member with a deadline of February 22, 2016 for review and follow-up actions on specific sections of the draft. As of March 31, 2016, a preliminary draft (dated March 30, 2016) was sent to the NCRP PACs for review, and was shared with an ICRP Task Group.The membership of CC 1 is:
KENNETH R. KASE
is Honorary Vice-President of NCRP. He was a member of the Council for 24 y, served as Senior Vice President for 9 y, and for 12 y as Scientific Vice President and Chair of Scientific Committee 46 for Operational Radiation Safety. He also was a member of Committee 4 of the International Commission on Radiation Protection from 1997 to 2001. Dr. Kase completed his term as President of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in May 2012. He served as Vice-President from 2004 to 2008, and chaired the International Congress Program Committee for the 2000 International Congress on Radiation Protection (IRPA 10) in Hiroshima, Japan.
Kenneth Kase began his career in Health Physics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, in 1963 and moved to Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in 1969. In 1975 he received a PhD from Stanford University and was appointed to the faculty of Radiation Oncology at the Harvard Medical School. He was appointed Professor of Radiation Oncology at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in 1985. In 1992 he returned to Stanford and was appointed Associate Director of SLAC and Director of the Environment, Safety and Health Division in 1995. He retired from that post in 2001 and from SLAC in 2005. Currently he is associated with Lyncean Technologies, Inc., an research and development firm in Palo Alto, California. He is married to Grady and has two daughters and 6 grandchildren.
Throughout his career Dr. Kase has been active in research activities related to radiation physics and radiation protection, particularly in radiation measurements and the operation of particle accelerators. He has published over 75 papers in peer reviewed journals, co-authored one book, and edited three others on radiation dosimetry.
Dr. Kase served on the Board of Directors of the Health Physics Society (HPS) from 1989 to1992 and 2002 to 2005 and as President of the HPS in 2003 to 2004. He served on the Board of Directors of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) from 1984 to 1991, and as AAPM Treasurer from 1986 to 1991. Dr. Kase also has been an associate editor of Health Physics, Medical Physics, and Radiation Research.
DONALD A. COOL
received his Masters and Doctorate degrees in Radiation Biology from the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. He is currently the Technical Executive for Radiation Safety at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and provides advice on EPRI Low Dose Radiation research and the Radiation Safety Program. Dr. Cool retired from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) after more than 32 y of service. At NRC, he was responsible for coordinating the wide range of international activities related to radiation protection, safety, and security of byproduct materials; decommissioning and waste management; radiation protection policy; and international standards, and had previously served in various senior management positions including Director, Division of Industrial and Medical Nuclear Safety, and other increasingly responsible positions within NRC. Dr. Cool is a member of the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and Chairman of ICRP Committee 4 on Application of the Commission’s Recommendations, and is a Fellow of the Health Physics Society.
is the Radiological Assessment Team Lead at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) serving as subject matter expert in CDC’s radiation emergency preparedness and response activities. He received his BS and PhD degrees in radiation biophysics from the University of Kansas, starting his career as a radiation biologist, and did his postdoctoral research in radiation-induced mutagenesis at Oak Ridge and Los Alamos National Laboratories. He was a senior scientist with the radiological consulting firm of Auxier & Associates before joining CDC in 2002. He has led the development of key national guidance documents including guides for population monitoring and operation of public shelters after radiation emergencies and a number of training products for public health professionals. He is a past president of the Health Physics Society, adjunct associate professor of nuclear and radiological engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology, member of Georgia East Metro Medical Reserve Corps and Gwinnett County Community Emergency Response Team, and provides consultancy to the International Atomic Energy Agency. Since 2014, he has served as member of the U.S. delegation to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. He is the author of Radiation Threats and Your Safety: A Guide to Preparation and Response for Professionals and Community, a book specifically directed at audiences without radiation protection expertise.
JOHN D. BOICE, JR.
is the President of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), Bethesda, Maryland, and Professor of Medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee. He is an international authority on radiation effects and currently serves on the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and as a U.S. advisor to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. During 27 y of service in the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. Boice developed and became the first chief of the Radiation Epidemiology Branch at the National Cancer Institute.
Dr. Boice has established programs of research in all major areas of radiation epidemiology, with major projects dealing with populations exposed to medical, occupational, military and environmental radiation. These research efforts have aimed at clarifying cancer and other health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, especially at low-dose levels. Boice's seminal discoveries and over 460 publications have been used to formulate public health measures to reduce population exposure to radiation and prevent radiation-associated diseases.
He has delivered the Laurison S. Taylor Lecture at the NCRP and the Fessinger-Springer Lecture at the University of Texas at El Paso. In 2008, Dr. Boice received the Harvard School of Public Health Alumni Award of Merit. He has also received the E.O. Lawrence Award from the Department of Energy — an honor bestowed on Richard Feynman and Murray Gell-Mann among others — and the Gorgas Medal from the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. In 1999 he received the outstanding alumnus award from the University of Texas at El Paso (formerly Texas Western College). Dr. Boice directs the Million U.S. Radiation Workers and Veterans Study to examine the lifetime risk of cancer following relatively low-dose exposures received gradually over time.
JERROLD T. BUSHBERG
is the Senior Vice President of NCRP, and Clinical Professor of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, University of California (UC) Davis School of Medicine. He is an expert on the biological effects, safety, and interactions of ionizing and nonionizing radiation and holds multiple radiation detection technology patents. Dr. Bushberg is an elected fellow of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the Health Physics Society. He is certified by several national professional boards with specific subspecialty certification in radiation protection and medical physics and currently serves as a Director of the American Board of Medical Physics. Dr. Bushberg was awarded the Warren K. Sinclair Medal for Excellence in Radiation Science by NCRP in 2014. Prior to coming to the UC Davis Health System as technical director of Nuclear Medicine, Dr. Bushberg was on the faculty of Yale University School of Medicine where his research was focused on radiopharmaceutical development.
Dr. Bushberg has served as an advisor to government agencies and institutions throughout the nation and around the world on the biological effects and safety of ionizing and nonionizing radiation exposure. He has worked for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the World Health Organization, and the International Atomic Energy Agency as a subject matter expert in radiation protection and radiological emergency medical management. Dr. Bushberg has responsibility for medical postgraduate education in medical physics, radiation (ionizing and nonionizing) protection, and radiation biology. The third edition of the textbook "The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging," authored by Bushberg, Seibert, Leidholdt, and Boone, is used extensively by radiology residency programs throughout the United States.
LAWRENCE T. DAUER
is Associate Attending Physicist, and Associate Clinical Member in the Departments of Medical Physics and Radiology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in New York City. He earned an MS in Health Physics and a PhD in Adult Education. He is certified in comprehensive health physics by the American Board of Health Physics and is past chair of the Radiation Safety Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), past President of the Greater New York Chapter of the Health Physics Society (HPS), Executive Council Member of the Medical Physics Section of the HPS, a Member of the Joint Safety Committee of the Society for Interventional Radiology and the American College of Radiology, past council member of the Radiological and Medical Physics chapter of the AAPM, and a member of editorial and review boards of several scientific journals. He serves as the Chair of the MSKCC Emergency Management Committee, a member of the Radiation Injury Treatment Network. In 2005, he received the Elda E. Anderson Award from HPS. He is a Council member and serves on he Board of Directors of the NCRP. He also serves as a member of the International Commission on Radiological Protection Committee 3 on protection in medicine, a member of the science council for the International Organization for Medical Physics, and was on the program committee for the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine-Setting the Scene for the Next Decade. He serves on the Radiation Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board. He has several publications in the topical areas of radiation protection and risks in the fields of detection, radiology, interventional radiology, x-ray imaging, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology, as well as surgery and medicine.
Darrell R. Fisher
PATRICIA A. FLEMING
is Provost, Senior Vice President of Academic Affairs, and Professor in Philosophy at Saint Mary's. She received her master's and doctorate from Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. While there, she served as the assistant editor of the Philosophy of Science Journal. She has also served as a consultant to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency in Paris, France. Dr. Fleming has published and lectured internationally on the ethical and epistemological issues associated with the disposal of high-level nuclear waste, including the use of expert elicitation methodology in site characterization, waste management and indigenous populations, informed consent in stakeholder populations, and circularity in regulatory policy.
Dr. Fleming's familiarity with ethical concerns regarding the health effects from radiation exposure led to her appointment on the National Academy of Science Committee to Assess the Scientific Information for the Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program. She served on the Veterans Board on Dose Reconstruction from 2005 to 2013.
Kathryn A. Higley
Kathryn A. Higley is a Professor and Head of the School of Nuclear Science and Engineering in the College of Engineering at Oregon State University. Dr. Higley received both her PhD and MS in Radiological Health Sciences from Colorado State University, and her BA in Chemistry from Reed College. She has held both Reactor Operator and Senior Reactor Operator's licenses, and is a former Reactor Supervisor for the Reed College TRIGA reactor. Dr. Higley started her career as a Radioecologist for Portland General Electric. She later worked for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a Senior Research Scientist in the area of environmental health physics. Dr. Higley has been at Oregon State University since 1994 teaching undergraduate and graduate classes on radioecology, dosimetry, radiation protection, radiochemistry, and radiation biology.
Her fields of interest include environmental transport and fate of radionuclides, radioecology, radiochemistry, radiation dose assessment, neutron activation analysis, nuclear emergency response, and environmental regulations. She is vice-chair of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Committee 5 (protection of the environment); a fellow of the Health Physics Society and a Certified Health Physicist.
Randall N. Hyer
Randall N. Hyer, Senior Fellow and Assistant Director for Environmental, Health and Safety, Center for Risk Communication.
Dr. Hyer graduated with distinction from the U.S. Naval Academy, and served 12 y on active duty in the U.S. Navy. After earning his medical degree from Duke University, Dr. Hyer served as the 40th Winter-Over Medical Officer and Assistant Officer-in-Charge with Operation DEEP FREEZE at McMurdo and South Pole Stations in Antarctica. Dr. Hyer earned his PhD from Oxford, studying the molecular genetics of juvenile diabetes and helped determine the role of the insulin gene in disease susceptibility.
In 1994, the National Institutes of Health awarded Dr. Hyer the "NIH Outstanding Research Award for Clinical Trainees." Trained in public health at Walter Reed Hospital and Harvard University, Commander Hyer supported four major military operations in the European, African, and southwest Asian theatres to include service as Chief Public Health Advisor for the Kosovo operations and Deputy Surgeon for the Mozambique flood relief operations. Dr. Hyer then spent 4 y at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva as the first WHO Civil Military Liaison Officer and served as part of the WHO's outbreak response team to deadly outbreaks like anthrax, SARS, and avian influenza as well as having organized missions during the 2005 Tsunami response. His experiences with the media in outbreaks and emergencies led him to coauthor the popular WHO handbook, Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies.
Appointed a U.S. Congressional Fellow for Senator Pete V. Domenici (R-New Mexico), he helped introduce legislation to safeguard genetic privacy that eventually became the Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act (GINA) of 2008. In 2005, Dr. Hyer joined Merck Vaccine Division in Global Medical Affairs and Policy. His focus has been the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. In 2009, he was transferred to MSD in Tokyo, Japan.
WILLIAM E. IRWIN
leads the Radiological and Toxicological Sciences Program at the Vermont Department of Health. He is responsible for all aspects of the Vermont Radiation Control Program in the Healing Arts, Industrial Applications, Environmental Surveillance and Emergency Preparedness. He is Chair-Elect for the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, for which he has served on committees focused on radiological and nuclear emergency preparedness and on environmental nuclear issues. He is a Certified Health Physicist and long-time member of the Health Physics Society and the American Academy of Health Physics where he was a member of the American Board of Health Physics panel of examiners. Prior to serving in government, Dr. Irwin was Laser Safety Officer and a Radiation Safety Officer at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
During that time, he was a consultant to industry and government on measurements and the health effects of radiofrequency radiation, laser radiation, extremely low frequency and nuclear magnetic resonance electromagnetic fields, as well as ionizing radiations produced by machines and radioactive materials. His dissertation was on the health effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure from wireless telecommunications. Both his PhD and MS were earned at the University of Massachusetts Lowell. Before graduate school, Dr. Irwin worked in the commercial nuclear power industry as an instructor in radiation protection, chemistry and nuclear plant systems and operations. He started his career as a radiation protection technician controlling exposures to radiation and radioactive materials on-board U.S. Navy submarines, guided missile cruisers, and aircraft carriers at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company.
FRED A. METTLER, JR.
is currently Professor Emeritus and Clinical Professor at the Department of Radiology at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. He was chairman of the department for 18 y from 1994 to 2003. He is currently in the Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Service at the New Mexico Federal Regional Medical Center.
He graduated with a BA in Mathematics from Columbia University and in 1970 he received his MD from Thomas Jefferson University. He performed a rotating internship at the University of Chicago and subsequently completed a Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Residency at Massachusetts General Hospital. He received an MS in Public Health from Harvard University in 1975. He is a fellow of both the American College of Radiology and the American College of Nuclear Physicians. He is board certified in both radiology and nuclear medicine.
Dr. Mettler has authored over 360 scientific publications including 20 textbooks, and holds four patents. The books are on Medical Management of Radiation Accidents, Medical Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. He was a Scientific Vice President of NCRP and remains a member. He has chaired several committees for the Institute of Medicine/National Research Council and is a member of the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board of the National Academies. He is also an academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Dr. Mettler has been listed in "The Best Doctors in America" since 1994 as an expert in both nuclear medicine and radiation injury. He has been a certifying examiner for the American Board of Radiology for 30 y.
He was the United States Representative to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation 28 y. He is an Emeritus Commissioner of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). He was the Health Effects Team Leader of the International Chernobyl Project. He has served as an expert on radiation effects and accidents for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Agency on Research on Cancer, and for the Costa Rican, Peruvian, Panamanian, Polish governments. He was a co-author of the NCRP and ICRP reports on radiation protection during radiological terrorism and has been a member of multiple subgroups on radiological terrorism for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. He is currently a health advisor to the Japanese Cabinet for the Fukushima nuclear disaster.
DONALD L. MILLER
is the Chief Medical Officer for Radiological Health in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health. He was previously Professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland and an adjunct investigator in the Radiation Epidemiology Branch of the National Cancer Institute.
Dr. Miller earned a BA in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry from Yale University in 1972 and an MD from the New York University School of Medicine in 1976. He holds Board certification in both Diagnostic Radiology and Interventional Radiology. Prior to joining FDA, he engaged in the clinical practice of interventional radiology for nearly three decades.
He is a Fellow of the Society of Interventional Radiology and of the American College of Radiology, and is an Honorary Member of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. He has served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization on issues related to radiation protection in medicine.
Dr. Miller was elected to NCRP in 2006. He serves currently as Co-Chair of Program Area Committee 4 (radiation protection in medicine), Chair of the Nominating Committee, and as a member or consultant to several scientific committees. He was Vice-Chair for NCRP Report No. 168 (Radiation Dose Management for X-Ray Guided Interventional Medical Procedures) and a consultant for NCRP Report No. 172 (Reference Levels and Achievable Doses in Medical and Dental Imaging: Recommendations for the United States).
He became a member of ICRP Committee 3 (Protection in Medicine) in 2010, and since 2013 has served as Vice-Chair of the Committee. He was an author of ICRP Publication 117 (Radiological Protection in Fluoroscopically Guided Procedures Performed Outside the Imaging Department) and Co-Chair for ICRP Publication 120 (Radiological Protection in Cardiology). He currently serves on three working parties of Committee 3.
Dr. Miller has authored more than 180 publications in peer-reviewed journals and more than 30 book chapters and reports. His research interests center on radiation protection in medicine, and include occupational radiation protection for interventional fluoroscopy, patient radiation doses and radiation protection in interventional procedures, and the development of U.S. national diagnostic reference levels for medical exposures.
R. JULIAN PRESTON
recently retired as the Associate Director for Health for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). He also served as Director of the Environmental Carcinogenesis Division at EPA and as senior science adviser at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology. He has been employed at the Biology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and has served as associate director for the Oak Ridge–University of Tennessee Graduate School for Biomedical Sciences. Dr. Preston's research and current activities have focused on the mechanisms of radiation and chemical carcinogenesis and the approaches for incorporating these types of data into cancer risk assessments.
Dr. Preston was chair of Committee 1 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), a member of the ICRP Main Commission, and a member of the U.S. delegation to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. He is an associate editor of Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Mutation Research, Chemico-Biological Interactions, and Health Physics. Dr. Preston has had more than 200 peer-reviewed papers and chapters published. He received his BA and MA from Peterhouse, Cambridge University, England, in genetics and his PhD from Reading University, England, in radiation genetics. He has served on the National Research Council's Committee to Assess the Scientific Information for the Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program and the Task Group on the Biological Effects of Space Radiation.
GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK
is a Professor of Radiation Oncology and Radiology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. She and her group have been involved in studies of molecular consequences of radiation exposure, late tissue effects associated with radiation, and the use of radiation-inducible nanomaterials for cancer imaging and therapy. Dr. Woloschak also teaches radiation biology to radiation oncology and radiology residents, cardiology trainees, and graduate students and manages the Advanced Grant Writing Workshop for the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).
She earned her PhD in medical sciences from the University of Toledo (Ohio) and did post-doctoral studies in molecular biology at the Mayo Clinic. She has served on review panels for various federal agencies including the National Institutes of Health, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, RSNA, the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and others. She is currently an associated editor for Radiation Research, the International Journal of Radiation Biology, PLOS One, and Nanomedicine. She is a member of NCRP Program Area Committee 1, has served on organizational committees for several NCRP meetings, and has been involved in committees for several NCRP reports. She is currently Vice-President Elect for the Radiation Research Society.
JOHN E. TILL
is President of Risk Assessment Corporation. He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy and served in the U.S. Navy Nuclear Submarine Program and retired a Rear Admiral in the U.S. Naval Reserve in 1999. Dr. Till received an MS from Colorado State University in 1972 and a PhD from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1976. In 1977 Dr. Till formed Risk Assessment Corporation to perform research on radionuclides released to the environment by nuclear facilities. His career has focused on the development of methods to estimate dose and risk to humans from radionuclides and chemicals in the environment. He has served on committees for the National Academy of Sciences, the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. He has published widely in the open literature including the first textbook on radiological risk assessment published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1983 and an updated version, Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis (2008).
In 1995, Dr. Till received the E.O. Lawrence Award from the U.S. Department of Energy in the field of Environmental Science and Technology. In addition to his scientific work, Dr. Till also owns and operates his family farm, growing corn and soybeans near Neeses, South Carolina.
S. JAMES ADELSTEIN
is Paul C. Cabot Distinguished Professor of Medical Biophysics. He received his MD degree from Harvard Medical School and his PhD in Biophysics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He did postdoctoral work at Cambridge University and at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. In the 1970s he organized nuclear medical units at Peter Bent Brigham (now Brigham and Women's) Hospital, Children's Hospital of Boston, and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, which were affiliated to become a teaching, clinical and research organization known as the Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine.
Dr. Adelstein served as the Executive Dean for Academic Programs at Harvard Medical School from 1978 to 1997. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and recipient of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging's Hermann Blumgart, Paul Aebersole, and George de Hevesy Awards. His research has focused on the biophysical effects of highly ionizing radiation emitted by radionuclides. Dr. Adelstein was elected to NCRP in 1978, served on several report-writing committees, and was Vice President of NCRP from 1983 to 2002.
Ralph L. Andersen
recently retired from the Nuclear Energy Institute as the Senior Director of Radiation Safety and Environmental Protection. His 45 y career spans a variety of positions in the areas of health physics, low-level radioactive waste management, and environmental protection across the sectors of nuclear energy, education, medical, industrial, research, and regulation. Mr. Andersen continues to practice as a certified health physicist, serving as a consultant to NCRP Council Committee 1, and as an advisor to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency on estimating the cost of nuclear accidents and the Electric Power Research Institute on low-dose radiation research. He has a BA from the University of Maryland and completed graduate studies in radiology and radiation biology at Colorado State University.
is a senior health physicist in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air/Radiation Protection Division (RPD) and has been with EPA since 1988. As a member of RPD's Center for Science and Technology, Mr. Boyd manages the development of new federal guidance documents. He is also the co-chair of the Federal Guidance Subcommittee of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS). Mr. Boyd is a recently elected member of the International Commission on Radiological Protection Committee 4. He chairs the Health Physics Society's International Collaboration Committee and is on the Bureau of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency's Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health. He has a BS in Biology and MS in Public Health from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
is a consultant, currently concentrating on the preparation of scientific reports produced by NCRP in all subject areas. From 1982 to 1995, he was Director, Office of Health Physics at the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He also served in a number of scientific and management positions related to radiation protection during his 33 y career as a Commissioned Officer in the U.S. Public Health Service, from 1962 to 1995. He received a BS in Chemical Engineering (University of Maryland, 1961), an MS in Environmental Engineering (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1966) and a PhD in Nuclear Engineering (University of Maryland, 1971). His technical work has concentrated on radiation dosimetry, particularly with regard to x rays used for medical diagnosis, epidemiological studies of exposed populations, and public radiation emergencies.
He is a Distinguished Emeritus Member of NCRP (after serving as a Council member for 18 y), and an Emeritus member of Committee 3 (Protection in Medicine) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection [after serving on Committee 3 for 28 y (1985 to 2013)]. He was also a member of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report committee that produced Report 74, Patient Dosimetry for X Rays Used in Medical Imaging.