PAC 4: Radiation Protection in Medicine

PAC 4 Publications

PAC Meeting, March 5, 2017
L to R / Standing: Donald Miller (Co-Chair), Edward Bluth, Mannudeep Kalra, Steven Sutlief, Fred Mettler, Anthony Seibert, Edwin Leidholdt, Ehsan Samei, Joel Gray, Alan Lurie, Wayne Newhauser, Ronald Goans, Lawrence Dauer
Seated: Shiao Woo, David Spelic, Julie Timins, Linda Kroger, Kimberly Applegate

PAC 4 provides oversight of activities in the field of radiation protection in medicine. Functioning within the scope of PAC 4is a scientific committee on radiation protection in dentistry:

Currently authorized but unfunded activities within this program area are:

  • medical evaluation of workers;
  • radiological protection standards and ethical issues in studies involving radiation exposure of human research subjects; and
  • revision of NCRP Report No. 102, Medical X-Rays, Electron Beam and Gamma-Ray Protection for Energies Up to 50 MeV (1989).

On June 28, 2013, at the NCRP President’s suggestion, PAC 4 held a 1 d meeting at NCRP in Bethesda, Maryland. The NCRP President summarized the new PAC membership plan and also described the benefit of writing and publishing short reports on timely topics. These reports are envisioned as single topic documents, shorter than most recent NCRP reports, with most or all of the authors from within PAC 4. These would address focused topics of concern in a time-efficient manner, and could be written without extramural funding. PAC 4 proposed that four short reports be written, by three to five authors (primarily from PAC 4), each 50 to 60 pages in length, with the completion of scoping documents by the beginning of August for possible BOD approval. Initial drafts were planned to be completed by the Annual Meeting in March 2014. The topics of the proposed reports were:

  1. Policies for managing substantial dose procedures and deterministic injuries associated with fluoroscopically-guided interventions (FGI) (Chair: S. Balter).
  2. Evaluating and communicating radiation risks for studies involving human subjects: Guidance for researchers and reviewing bodies (Chair: J. Timins).
  3. Dose optimization and error prevention in computed tomography (CT) (Chair: M. Kalra).
  4. Error prevention/safety in radiation therapy (Chair: S. Sutlief).

In the third quarter 2013, proposals were drafted for Items 1–4 and potential funding sources were identified. Additionally, PAC 4 reassessed plans to move forward with an update of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Radiation Risk Primer. The current version was published in 1996. In a recent meeting with NCRP, the ACR Chief Executive Officer (CEO) was generally supportive of an update. Initially, it was conceived as a joint ACR/NCRP/ICRP publication, with NCRP taking the lead. Due to the retirement of the CEO, ACR involvement has been limited to date. PAC 4 members are reassessing the potential to collaborate with other professional organizations including the American College of Cardiology, the Society of Vascular Surgery, and Image Wisely® with a view to tailoring the primer to other specialties as well as to radiologists. The Committee developed a table of contents for a proposed revision. Also, in the third quarter a manuscript on appropriateness of applications of CT in emergency medicine was accepted for publication in the Annals of Emergency Medicine and in the Journal of the American College of Radiology.

In the fourth quarter 2013, a proposal for writing a statement, Administrative Policies for Managing Substantial Dose Procedures and Tissue Reactions Associated with Fluoroscopically-Guided Interventions, was sent to the BOD and approved, resulting in the formation of SC 4-6.

PAC 4 met on March 15, 2015 in conjunction with the NCRP Annual Meeting. The status of SC 4-5, SC 4-7, and SC 4-8 projects were discussed.

The PAC also reviewed four potential projects under consideration:

  • Operational Radiation Safety for Positron Emission Tomography and Multi-Modality (Hybrid) Imaging Systems and Associated Radionuclide Production
  • Diagnostic and Therapy Dose to Implantable Devices
  • Error Prevention in Radiation Therapy
  • Web-Based Organ Dose Calculator for Computed Tomography and Nuclear Medicine

PAC 4 will meet in conjunction with the 2016 Annual Meeting on April 11, 2016.

The membership of PAC 4 is:




is Radiologist-in-Chief at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). He earned a BS degree in Electrical Engineering at Purdue University and an MD at Indiana University before completing his residency and fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital. He joined the faculty at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University School of Medicine where he rose to the rank of Associate Professor prior to joining the faculty at Yale University in 1997. Promoted to Professor in 2001, Dr. Brink was appointed Interim Chair in 2003 and Chair of the Yale Department of Diagnostic Radiology in 2006.

On February 1, 2013, Dr. Brink left Yale to serve as Radiologist-in-Chief at MGH. While he has broad experience in medical imaging, including utilization and management of imaging resources, he has particular interest and expertise in issues related to the monitoring and control of medical radiation exposure. Dr. Brink is a fellow of the Society for Computed Body Tomography/Magnetic Resonance and a fellow of the American College of Radiology (ACR). For ACR, he serves on the Executive Committee and Board of Chancellors as Chair of the Body Imaging Commission, Chair of the Imaging Communication Network, and Co-Chair of the Global Summit on Radiology Quality and Safety. For the American Roentgen Ray Society, Dr. Brink is a member of the Executive Council and immediate Past President.

For NCRP, Dr. Brink is the Scientific Vice President for Radiation Protection in Medicine, and chaired the NCRP scientific committee that defined diagnostic reference levels for medical imaging in the United States (NCRP Report No. 172, 2012). For the International Society of Radiology, Dr. Brink serves as Chair of the International Commission for Radiology Education, and for the Radiological Society of North America, he serves as Co-Chair of the Image Wisely® initiative, a social marketing campaign to increase awareness about adult radiation protection in medicine.

james a. brink, Vice President
Miller D


Miller D

is Chief Medical Officer for Radiological Health at the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health. He earned a BA from Yale University and an MD from New York University, and completed a residency in diagnostic radiology and a fellowship in interventional radiology at New York University Medical Center. He is board certified in Diagnostic Radiology and Vascular and Interventional Radiology. Prior to joining FDA, he practiced interventional radiology at the National Institutes of Health and the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.

Dr. Miller was elected to NCRP in 2006. He currently serves as Co-Chair of Program Area Committee 4 (Radiation Protection in Medicine), Chair of the Nominating Committee, and as a member of several scientific committees. He is an author of NCRP Reports No. 168 and No. 172 and Statement No. 11. He also served as a member of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Committee 3 (Protection in Medicine) from 2010 to 2017. He is an author of ICRP Publications 117 and 120. He was Vice-Chair for the U.S. Environmental Protection Administration’s Federal Guidance Report No. 14, is a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency, and is a member of the World Health Organization’s Core Group of Experts on radiation protection of patients and staff.

Dr. Miller was Professor of Radiology at the Uniformed Services University in Bethesda, Maryland from 1993 to 2012 and has served as Associate Editor of Radiology and the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. He is an author of more than 185 papers in peer-reviewed journals and more than 30 book chapters and reports, is a Fellow of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) and is an Honorary Member of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. He chaired SIR’s Safety and Health Committee from 1999 to 2011 and the ACR Guidelines Interventional Committee from 2008 to 2012. His research interests have centered on radiation protection in medicine.

donald l. miller, Co-Chair

Kimberly E. Applegate


is a professor of radiology and pediatrics and director of practice quality improvement in radiology at Emory University in Atlanta. At Emory University, she chairs the Radiation Control Council which reviews policy, clinical and research activities involving the use of ionizing radiation. Kimberly is dedicated to service in organized radiology—she is the President of the Association for University Radiologists (AUR) Research and Education Foundation, Past President of AUR, and served on multiple medical boards and editorial boards. Dr. Applegate has published over 140 peer-reviewed papers and book chapters, and presented scientific papers and lectures at medical and scientific assemblies around the world. In 2007, Dr. Applegate was elected to both the NCRP and the Steering Committee of the American College of Radiology (ACR), and began work on the initial Steering Committee for the Image Gently® Campaign to reduce radiation exposure in children. The Campaign has received a number of awards and collaborates internationally to change imaging practice. She is the national and international outreach chair for this campaign. In 2010, she co-edited the book “Evidence-Based Imaging in Pediatrics” to promote appropriate use of medical imaging in infants and children. Most recently, she co-authored the ICRP Publication 121, Radiological Protection of Paediatric Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology. She has long had an interest in the development of imaging guidelines, chairing this process for ACR, and collaborating with the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency on international guideline development. Dr. Applegate is the ACR Vice Speaker and member of its Executive Committee.

kimberly e. applegate
Balter Stephen Balter



is the Senior Vice President of NCRP, and Clinical Professor of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, University of California (UC) Davis School of Medicine. He is an expert on the biological effects, safety, and interactions of ionizing and nonionizing radiation and holds multiple radiation detection technology patents. Dr. Bushberg is an elected fellow of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the Health Physics Society. He is certified by several national professional boards with specific subspecialty certification in radiation protection and medical physics and currently serves as a Director of the American Board of Medical Physics. Dr. Bushberg was awarded the Warren K. Sinclair Medal for Excellence in Radiation Science by NCRP in 2014. Prior to coming to the UC Davis Health System as technical director of Nuclear Medicine, Dr. Bushberg was on the faculty of Yale University School of Medicine where his research was focused on radiopharmaceutical development.

Dr. Bushberg has served as an advisor to government agencies and institutions throughout the nation and around the world on the biological effects and safety of ionizing and nonionizing radiation exposure. He has worked for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the World Health Organization, and the International Atomic Energy Agency as a subject matter expert in radiation protection and radiological emergency medical management. Dr. Bushberg has responsibility for medical postgraduate education in medical physics, radiation (ionizing and nonionizing) protection, and radiation biology. The third edition of the textbook "The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging," authored by Bushberg, Seibert, Leidholdt, and Boone, is used extensively by radiology residency programs throughout the United States.

jerrold t. bushberg

Charles E. Chambers


obtained his undergraduate degree at St. Bonaventure, graduated from the University of Maryland Medical School with subsequent training in Internal Medicine at the State University of New York at Buffalo, and Cardiology at the University of Vermont. Since 1987, Dr. Chambers has been on staff at the Hershey Medical Center of the Penn State University College of Medicine where he has been Director, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories since 1994, and Professor of Medicine and Radiology with tenure since 2002.

Dr. Chambers is active in the Society of Cardiac Angiography and Interventions (SCAI), serving as Chairman of the Laboratory Performance Standards Committee, from 2003 and current Chairman of both the Catheterization Laboratory Survey program as well as the Public Relations Committee. He is a prior Board of Trustees member, a recipient of the Mason Sones Distinguished service award, and SCAI representative to the National Quality Forum.

In addition to his work with SCAI, Dr. Chambers was a member of the steering committee member for ACC D2B, technical committee member for the ACC Appropriateness Criteria for Revascularization and writing member for the Diagnostic Catheterization Appropriateness Committee, as well as a member for the writing group for both the ACC/AHA/SCAI 2010 Cath Lab Standards and PCI Guidelines Writing Committees. He has authored or co-authored multiple articles and book chapters and currently serves on the editorial board for Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.

charles e. chambers
Dr. Lawrence Dauer


is Associate Attending Physicist, and Associate Clinical Member in the Departments of Medical Physics and Radiology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in New York City. He earned an MS in Health Physics and a PhD in Adult Education. He is certified in comprehensive health physics by the American Board of Health Physics and is past chair of the Radiation Safety Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), past President of the Greater New York Chapter of the Health Physics Society (HPS), Executive Council Member of the Medical Physics Section of the HPS, a Member of the Joint Safety Committee of the Society for Interventional Radiology and the American College of Radiology, past council member of the Radiological and Medical Physics chapter of the AAPM, and a member of editorial and review boards of several scientific journals. He serves as the Chair of the MSKCC Emergency Management Committee, a member of the Radiation Injury Treatment Network. In 2005, he received the Elda E. Anderson Award from HPS. He is a Council member and serves on he Board of Directors of the NCRP. He also serves as a member of the International Commission on Radiological Protection Committee 3 on protection in medicine, a member of the science council for the International Organization for Medical Physics, and was on the program committee for the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine-Setting the Scene for the Next Decade. He serves on the Radiation Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board. He has several publications in the topical areas of radiation protection and risks in the fields of detection, radiology, interventional radiology, x-ray imaging, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology, as well as surgery and medicine.

lawrence t. dauer
Einstein A


Einstein A

is an academic cardiologist with a clinical focus on cardiac imaging and a research focus on radiation safety and medical imaging. He presently serves as both Herbert Irving Assistant Professor of Medicine (in Radiology) and Victoria and Esther Aboodi Assistant Professor of Medicine (in Radiology) at Columbia University, as well as Director of Cardiac Computed Tomography (CT) Research and Co-Director of Cardiac CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. He and his colleagues are involved in numerous research efforts aimed at better quantifying the radiation burden from medical imaging and interventional procedures, as well as developing and validating approaches to reduce radiation risk to patients and populations. This interdisciplinary program has been recently funded by grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Margaret Q. Landenberger Foundation, the Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. Scholars Program, and investigator-initiated grants from industry.

Dr. Einstein's research in this area has resulted in numerous publications in journals including the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, and The Lancet. This work has been influential in affecting clinical practice, has been widely reported in the popular media and cited over two thousand times in the scientific literature. For this work, he has received the Louis Katz Cardiovascular Research Prize for a Young Investigator, the American Federation for Medical Research's Junior Physician Investigator Award, and the American College of Cardiology's Douglas P. Zipes Distinguished Young Investigator Award. In addition to his work on NCRP, Dr. Einstein is a member of the Food and Drug Administration's Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee and a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency.

He is a board member of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the Association for Clinical and Translational Science, and the Cardiovascular Council of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, and serves on the editorial boards of several cardiology journals. He has served as a Special Scientific Advisor to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima Japan, a corresponding member of the International Commission on Radiological Protection Task Group 62 on Radiological Protection in Cardiology, and a reviewer for the National Cancer Institute and over 20 journals. Dr. Einstein received an AB from Princeton University in mathematics, an MS from Columbia University in biostatistics/patient oriented research, and MD and PhD degrees from Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

andrew j. einstein

Donald P. Frush


is the John Strohbehn Professor of Radiology, Professor of Pediatrics, vice chair for safety and quality, faculty member of the Medical Physics Graduate Program, and Medical Director of the Duke Medical Radiation Center. Dr. Frush received a BS from The University of California Davis, MD from Duke University, was a pediatric Resident at University of California San Francisco from 1985 to 1987, a radiology resident at Duke, and finished a pediatric radiology fellowship at Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati in 1992.

Dr. Frush’s research interests are predominantly focused on pediatric body computed tomography (CT), including technology assessment, techniques for pediatric multidetector computed tomography examinations, assessment of image quality, and CT radiation dosimetry and dose reduction. International affiliations include the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Dr. Frush is currently a board member of the Society for Pediatric Radiology as well as NCRP, Chair of the Image Gently Alliance, Trustee of the American Board of Radiology, and a Fellow of Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance.

Donald P. Frush
Goans R


Goans R

has worked in the field of nuclear physics and radiation effects since 1966. He received his PhD in radiation physics from the University of Tennessee in 1974, his MD from the George Washington University School of Medicine in 1983, and the MPH from the Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine in 2000. He is currently Senior Medical Advisor with MJW Corporation and Senior Medical/Scientific Advisor with the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS).

Following medical school and residency, Dr. Goans had a research fellowship in the Laboratory of Theoretical and Physical Biology at the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development). In this capacity he performed mathematical modeling of calcium dynamics in different pathological states. Dr. Goans is Board Certified in Occupational Medicine through the American Board of Preventive Medicine. He practices general occupational and environmental medicine, particularly oriented toward the medical management of radiation injury. Through REAC/TS, he provides medical consultation on the diagnosis and treatment of actual and suspected radiation exposures, as well as long-term medical follow-up for selected radiation exposure victims. Dr. Goans' recent research has involved development of mathematical techniques for the early estimation of radiation dose, infrared analysis of local radiation injury, and the use of high frequency ultrasound for the analysis of radiation burns.

ronald e. goans
Gray J


Gray J

is Professor Emeritus, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and President of DIQUAD, LLC (Dental Image Quality and Dose), a firm that evaluates dental image quality and dose through the mail. Dr. Gray received his BS in Photographic Science and Instrumentation in 1970, an MS in Optical Sciences in 1974, and a PhD in Radiological Sciences from the Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto in 1977.

He served as a Diagnostic Medical Physicist at Mayo Clinic Rochester for 20 y, helped develop and obtain U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for Lorad's (now Hologic) first digital mammography system, and assisted in the development of the microStar patient dosimetry system using optically stimulated dosimetry material while at Landauer, Inc. After leaving Landauer, Dr. Gray founded DIQUAD and continues to operate that business today.

Dr. Gray published the first two books on quality control in medical imaging in 1976 under contract to FDA while in graduate school. Dr. Gray is the primary author of the first quality control text (Quality Control in Diagnostic Imaging—A Quality Control Cookbook) which is in use worldwide and has been translated into Chinese.

His primary areas of interest include image quality in medical and dental imaging, and optimization of image quality and radiation dose. He serves as a consultant to healthcare organizations and industry. Dr. Gray has served on many national and international advisory committees, including the International Commission Radiological Protection (Committee 3, Radiation Protection in Medicine) and is active in projects with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization. He has co-authored eight publications for the IAEA including educational programs and taught courses for the IAEA in several countries. He has over 170 publications in refereed journals and numerous book chapters, and presented lectures and refresher courses in the United States and overseas. He has visited over 40 countries for both business and pleasure.

Dr. Gray was responsible for starting the first Medical Physics Residency Program at Mayo Clinic in 1990. He has mentored masters and doctoral students, and Medical Physics residents.

He was elected to NCRP in 1986 and has served on numerous committees producing NCRP Report No. 99, Quality Assurance for Diagnostic Imaging; Report No. 147, Structural Shielding Design for Medical Imaging Facilities; and Report No. 160, Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States. He has served as a Technical Consultant for NCRP Commentary No. 20, Radiation Protection and Measurement Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator-Produced High-Energy X Rays; NCRP Report No. 172, Reference Levels and Achievable Doses in Medical and Dental Imaging: Recommendations for the United States; and is presently serving on Scientific Committee 4-5 on radiation protection in dentistry supplement, in that capacity. After serving 18 y on the Council he was named a Distinguished Emeritus Member in 2005.

Dr. Gray is a Fellow of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the American College of Medical Physics. In 2010 he received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Upstate New York Association of Medical Physicists and in 2011 the Edith Quimby Lifetime Achievement Award from the AAPM.

joel e. gray
Mannudeep Kalra

Mannudeep K.S. Kalra

Mannudeep Kalra

is an Assistant Radiologist at the Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging's Divisions of Thoracic Imaging and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance, Computed Tomography (CT), and Positron Emission Tomography Program. He is also an Assistant Professor of Radiology with the Harvard Medical School. Dr. Kalra received both an MBBS and an MD from the Government Medical College and Hospital. He performed his residency at the Government Medical College and Hospital and the Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences. In addition to his clinical work in chest and cardiac imaging, Dr. Kalra has keen interest in research pertaining to CT technology, radiation dose reduction, CT virtual autopsy, image post-processing and radiology informatics. Dr. Kalra has won numerous awards from majorradiology national and international societies for his work related to CT radiation dose.

Mannudeep K.S. Kalra

Linda A. Kroger


is Assistant Clinical Professor of Radiology at the University of California (UC) Davis School of Medicine and has served as the Radiation Safety Officer for the UC Davis Health System for the past 10 y. Ms. Kroger received her undergraduate degree and her Masters Degree from Rutgers University. She has been with UC Davis for 25 y. Prior to her arrival at UC Davis, Ms. Kroger worked for private industry in biopharmacology research and drug development. She transitioned to cancer research when she joined UC Davis in 1988. From 1988 through 2000, her research focused on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for both diagnostic imaging and treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and breast cancer. Since assuming her role as Radiation Safety Officer in 2003, she has focused on regulatory compliance, quality assurance issues as well as education of medical students, residents and fellows with the overall goal of improving workplace radiation safety. Ms. Kroger oversees the nonclinical aspects of nuclear medicine training for the radiology residency program at UC Davis. In addition, she has taken an interest in radiologic emergency preparedness. Ms. Kroger has authored or co-author more than 50 peer-reviewed journal articles and has presented at numerous scientific conferences. She has served in a number of roles in both the local chapter as well as the national Health Physics Society and been an active participant on NCRP committees since 2005.

linda a. kroger



is a program manager in the National Health Physics Program, Veterans Health Administration, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). His areas of interest include technical quality assurance and dose reduction in medical imaging and medical response to radiological incidents. He is certified by the American Board of Radiology in Medical Nuclear Physics and Diagnostic Radiological Physics. He received a PhD in Nuclear Engineering, a Master of Applied Mathematics, a Master of Engineering in Nuclear Engineering, and a BS in Nuclear Engineering, all from the University of Virginia. He has served as a Radiation Safety Officer at two VA medical centers, as technical director of nuclear medicine at one, and as the Radiation Safety Program Manager for the former Veterans Health Administration Western Region.

He is a Clinical Associate Professor of Radiology at the University of California, Davis, and a Clinical Adjunct Professor of Radiology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He is a co-author of six scientific papers and abstracts, one textbook chapter, and one textbook, in its third edition. He served on the scientific committee that wrote NCRP Report No. 165. Dr. Leidholdt served as a surface line officer in the U.S. Navy from 1971 until 1975.

edwin m. leidholdt, jr.

Alan G. Lurie


Alan G. Lurie is professor and chair of the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Diagnostic Sciences and chair of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, at the University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine. He has John Dempsey Hospital appointments in the Departments of Dentistry and Diagnostic Imaging and Therapeutics. He has been a full-time member of the dental school faculty since 1973, during which time he has done R0-1 research on radiation carcinogenesis, administered predoctoral and graduate educational programs, performed clinical research, and performed imaging care on patients in both dental and medical radiology settings.

He is past president and a current member of the School of Dental Medicine Council, co-founder of the University of Connecticut Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Cancer Clinic, and a member of numerous dental school and institutional committees. He is also an active member of his specialty nationally, having served as Councilor for Public Policy and Scientific Affairs of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Past President of the American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. Dr. Lurie has more than 100 publications in the refereed literature, and numerous presentations to local, state, national and international organizations.

Alan G. Lurie



is the Professor of Radiology and Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. He is also the Chief Physicist at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. He is also the Professor of Environmental Health and Engineering at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Dr. Mahesh obtained his PhD in Medical Physics from Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Dr. Mahesh is board certified from the American Board of Radiology in diagnostic radiological physics and is a member of the Radiation Control Advisory Board for the State of Maryland. His research interests are in medical imaging, particularly in areas of multiple-row detector computed tomography (MDCT), interventional fluoroscopy, and digital mammography. As chief physicist, he oversees the quality assurance program for the diagnostic radiology that includes maintaining compliance with regard to state and federal regulations and ensuring safe use of radiation to patients. He often provides counsels to patients concerned over their radiation exposure from diagnostic x-ray examinations.

Dr. Mahesh is the editor of the Physics Columns (Technology Talk and Medical Physics Consult) for the Journal of American College of Radiology (JACR) since 2007. He is also the Associate Editor of JACR, Deputy Editor for Academic Radiology, Editorial Board Member for RadioGraphics and Radiology journals. He is the Treasurer for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and board member of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT). He is a fellow of the AAPM (2007), ACR (2009), American College of Medical Physics (2011), and SCCT (2011).

Dr. Mahesh has been invited to be the United Nations-International Atomic Energy Agency (UN-IAEA) expert to participate in IAEA activities. Dr. Mahesh is the author of the textbook titled MDCT Physics: The Basics – Technology, Image Quality and Radiation Dose. He publishes and lectures extensively here in the United States and internationally in the area of MDCT technology, radiation doses in medical imaging, and other medical physics areas.

Dr. Mahesh is on the NCRP Council and was a member of NCRP Scientific Committee (SC) 6-2 that published NCRP Report No. 160, Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the United States Population. He is the co-chair of NCRP SC 4-9 on Medical Exposure of the U.S. population.

mahadevappa mahesh



is currently Professor Emeritus and Clinical Professor at the Department of Radiology at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. He was chairman of the department for 18 y from 1994 to 2003. He is currently in the Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Service at the New Mexico Federal Regional Medical Center.

He graduated with a BA in Mathematics from Columbia University and in 1970 he received his MD from Thomas Jefferson University. He performed a rotating internship at the University of Chicago and subsequently completed a Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Residency at Massachusetts General Hospital. He received an MS in Public Health from Harvard University in 1975. He is a fellow of both the American College of Radiology and the American College of Nuclear Physicians. He is board certified in both radiology and nuclear medicine.

Dr. Mettler has authored over 360 scientific publications including 20 textbooks, and holds four patents. The books are on Medical Management of Radiation Accidents, Medical Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. He was a Scientific Vice President of NCRP and remains a member. He has chaired several committees for the Institute of Medicine/National Research Council and is a member of the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board of the National Academies. He is also an academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Dr. Mettler has been listed in "The Best Doctors in America" since 1994 as an expert in both nuclear medicine and radiation injury. He has been a certifying examiner for the American Board of Radiology for 30 y.

He was the United States Representative to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation 28 y. He is an Emeritus Commissioner of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). He was the Health Effects Team Leader of the International Chernobyl Project. He has served as an expert on radiation effects and accidents for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Agency on Research on Cancer, and for the Costa Rican, Peruvian, Panamanian, Polish governments. He was a co-author of the NCRP and ICRP reports on radiation protection during radiological terrorism and has been a member of multiple subgroups on radiological terrorism for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. He is currently a health advisor to the Japanese Cabinet for the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

fred a. mettler, jr.



is the Director of the Medical and Health Physics Program at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, holder of the Dr. Charles M. Smith Chair in Medical Physics, and Chief of Physics at the Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center. He is a board certified and licensed medical physicist with specialization in advanced-technology radiotherapies. Dr. Newhauser is an expert in proton radiation therapy, dose reconstructions, and risk estimation and reduction. His current research projects seek to improve long-term outcomes of survivors of childhood and adult cancers. He and his multidisciplinary team of collaborators are known for their early use of Monte-Carlo methods and high-performance computing in proton therapy, including neutron shielding, treatment planning, and estimation of stray radiation exposures. He received the Innovation Excellence Award in 2012 in recognition of his laboratory's research involving in-silico clinical trials to compare advanced-technology radiotherapies.

Dr. Newhauser has published more than 85 peer-reviewed journal articles, leads federal research grants, and mentors graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. He has served in leadership roles in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the American Nuclear Society, and the Health Physics Society. He serves on the International Advisory Board of the journal Physics In Medicine and Biology and is a corresponding member of EURODOS. After receiving a BS in nuclear engineering and MS and PhD degrees medical physics from the University of Wisconsin, he worked at the German National Standards Laboratory, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

wayne d. newhauser
Samei E


Samei E

is a tenured Professor of Radiology, Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering at Duke University, where he also serves as the director of Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories and the founding director of the Clinical Imaging Physics Group. His expertise includes x-ray imaging, theoretical imaging models, simulation methods, and experimental techniques in medical image formation, analysis, assessment, display and perception. His current research includes methods to develop image quality and dose metrics that are clinically relevant and that can be used to design and utilize advanced imaging techniques towards optimum interpretive, quantitative and molecular performance. The main modalities of interest are computed tomography and tomosynthesis for breast, lung and abdominal imaging applications. He has been the recipient of 24 extramural grants, and has over 140 referred papers. He is certified by the American Board of Radiology, is a fellow of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and is a fellow of the International Society of Optical Engineering (SPIE).

He was the founding Director of the Graduate Studies of the Duke Medical Physics Graduate Program. He has held leadership positions in the AAPM, the SPIE, and the Society of Directors of Academic Medical Physics Programs, and was appointed to the NCRP and serves on Program Area Committee 4.

ehsan samei



is Professor of Radiology at the University of California (UC) Davis School of Medicine in Sacramento, California. He received a PhD in Radiological Sciences from UC Irvine in 1982, specializing in quantitative digital fluoroscopic imaging. Directly thereafter, he took a faculty position at UC Davis Medical Center, pursuing digital imaging research, physics education efforts for graduate students and radiology residents, as well as quality control for medical imaging equipment in Diagnostic Radiology.

He currently is Associate Chair of Imaging Informatics for the Department of Radiology, with continuing academic interests in digital mammography, computed tomography, interventional radiology, imaging informatics, and radiation dose tracking, assessment, and reporting. Former president of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) in 2011 and current Trustee of the American Board of Radiology, Dr. Seibert has served and continues to interact with many professional committees in regards to medical imaging issues and presenting technical / educational events for the AAPM, International Atomic Energy Agency, and other professional societies. For NCRP, he is a member of Program Area Committee 4. As a co-author of The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging textbook for diagnostic physics education, Dr. Seibert continues with the development of cutting edge imaging technologies and medical physics education to improve the state of imaging science for the betterment of patient care.

j. anthony seibert
Spelic D

David C. Spelic

Spelic Dis a physicist with the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health. On his arrival at the FDA in 1994, Dr. Spelic became involved with the Agency’s implementation of the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA), particularly focusing on mammography physics testing and the training of MQSA inspectors.

Presently Dr. Spelic conducts premarket reviews of diagnostic x-ray devices, and directs most technical aspects of the Nationwide Evaluation of X-Ray Trends (NEXT) program, an FDA collaboration with the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors to document trends in patient dose and image quality for selected diagnostic x-ray exams and procedures.

David C. Spelic



received his PhD in experimental particle physics from the University of Washington and subsequently completed a post-doctoral fellowship in radiation therapy medical physics at the University of Washington with research in intensity modulated radiation therapy. Since then he has been chief medical physicist at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle and an affiliate faculty member in the University of Washington School of Medicine. He actively participates in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, where he has served on many committees and on several task group reports. Dr. Sutlief has worked to advance radiation therapy within the VA, including agency-wide radiotherapy equipment modernization, radiotherapy device interconnectivity, consultation for the VA National Health Physics Program, participation in several investigations, and development of qualification standards for therapeutic medical physicists.

He has coauthored 45 articles and book chapters related to therapeutic medical physics. Dr. Sutlief developed and taught the physics curriculum for the Bellevue College Medical Dosimetry program. He has served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency and as a member of the Radiation Oncology planning group for the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise. Recently Dr. Sutlief was a Co-organizer for the AAPM Summer School on Quality and Safety in Radiation Therapy and was a faculty member for the Veterans Health Administration Biennial Conference on Radiation Oncology. He is currently an NCRP Council member.

steven g. sutlief
Timins J


Timins J

is a Diagnostic Radiologist, board-certified in General Radiology and in Nuclear Medicine. Her medical practice has been varied, including Chair of Nuclear Medicine at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Lyons, New Jersey; 10 y as Staff Radiologist at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, New Jersey; 11 y in an inner-city hospital in Jersey City; and over 4 y in a suburban out-patient imaging facility specializing in Mammography and Women's Imaging in Morristown, New Jersey. Dr. Timins is Chair of the New Jersey Commission on Radiation Protection, and sits on the New Jersey Radiologic Technology Board of Examiners. She served on the NCRP Board of Directors, and received a Commendation for Outstanding Service on the 2010 Annual Meeting Program Committee – "Communication of Radiation Benefits and Risks in Decision Making." She is past president of the Radiological Society of New Jersey and recipient of that organization's Gold Medal Award. Dr. Timins was honored as a Fellow of the American College of Radiology, and has served that organization on the Council Steering Committee and as Chair of Practice Guidelines and Technical Standards, on the Commission on Quality and Safety.

She is a recipient of the Advisory Committee Service Award of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in recognition of distinguished service on the National Mammography Quality Assurance Advisory Committee. The American Association for Women Radiologists has honored Dr. Timins with the Professional Leadership Award for Mid Career/Senior Faculty and the President's Award. In appreciation of service as an Affiliate Member of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, she was presented with the Board of Directors Award for Outstanding Achievement in the Field of Radiation Protection, for participation on the H-30 Task Force and development of the White Paper on Bone Densitometry.

Julie E.K. Timins
Wagner L


Wagner L

completed his Ph.D. thesis in Experimental Nuclear Physics at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories and received his degree from The Florida State University, Tallahassee in 1976. He performed his postgraduate training at Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York. He has been on faculty at the University of Texas-Houston Medical School since 1978 where he is presently a Tenured Professor of Radiological Sciences. He is Chief Physicist over diagnostic and interventional uses of ionizing radiations and is Radiation Safety Officer for two major hospitals in Houston, Texas. He has over 60 peer reviewed journal articles, is author of several books, and has published more than 20 chapters in books ranging in topics from pediatric imaging to pain management and interventional cardiology.

His focus of interest is in the medical management of radiation in diagnostic and interventional imaging, including management of the pregnant patient, with the purpose of assessing and improving the benefit/risk ration for patients undergoing ionizing radiation procedures. Dr. Wagner has been invited as a guest lecturer to 18 international audiences and over 150 meetings of domestic professional groups and societies. He is a Fellow of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and a Fellow of the American College of Radiology.

louis k. wagner
White S

Stuart C. White

White S

is Professor Emeritus and past Chairman of the Section of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles. He serves on the Editorial Board of Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. He was the first recipient of the Arthur H. Wuehrmann Prize for research from the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. He was a founding member of the Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology in the United States and is particularly proud to have been elected as an Honored Life Member of the European Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. His recent publications pertain to radiation risk from dental radiography, selection criteria for dental radiographs, computer-aided differential diagnosis of oral radiographic lesions, decision support systems, comparative efficacy of digital and conventional imaging systems, and digital detection of osteoporosis on dental radiographs. With Dr. Michael Pharoah he co-authors and co-edits the textbook Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, now in its seventh edition.

stuart c. white
Woo S


Woo S

is Professor and Chairman, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kosair Children's Hospital/Norton Healthcare Chair in Pediatric Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky. After 2 y of matriculation (college equivalent under the British system), Shiao was admitted to medical school (University of Malaya) for a 5 y program and skipped a year of pre-med. At the tender age of 23, Shiao graduated from medical school after completing a year of rotatory internship and 2 y of internal medicine. Dr. Woo then traveled to the United Kingdom in 1975 to take the internal medicine board and passed. He continued training and rotations at several pediatric hospitals and gained an interest in Pediatric Oncology after meeting Dr. Lucius Sinks at Georgetown University Medical Center in Washington, D.C. in 1978. Dr. Woo did a Fellowship under Dr. Sinks, his first mentor, at the Lombardi Cancer Center at Georgetown. Once he passed the American Board of Pediatrics and the sub-board of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology he became an Assistant Professor at Georgetown in 1980. In 1981 he went with Dr. Sinks to be an Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at the Tufts New England Medical Center in Boston.

By 1985, Dr. Woo had decided to be re-trained in radiation oncology and went to a residency program for the third time at Stanford University Medical Center. There he met his second mentor, Dr. Sarah Donaldson with whom he became lifelong friends. In 1988 he passed the American Board of Radiology (Radiation Oncology) and moved to Houston to become an Assistant Professor in Radiation Oncology at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. After only a year, Dr. Woo was elected by the residents to be the Residency Training Program Director and won a residency teaching award in 1990. In 1991, Dr. Woo lifted the Residency Program at Baylor College of Medicine out of probation, became one of the earliest investigators in the country in the field of IMRT and became recognized as an expert in treating childhood cancers as well as brain tumors. In 1996, he was promoted to Professor with Tenure at the Baylor College of Medicine; in 2001 he was named an Associate Chairman in the Department of Radiology; in 2004, he was recruited by Dr. James Cox back to MD Anderson to be the Professor and Section Chief of Pediatric/CNS Radiation Oncology and the medical Director of the Proton Therapy Center. In 2010, he was recruited to be the Chairman and Professor of the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Louisville, School of Medicine in Louisville, Kentucky.

Dr. Woo is an internationally recognized authority on the treatment of brain, spinal cord, and pediatric cancers. He is superbly trained, has obtained extensive clinical and research experience at the world-class MD Anderson Cancer Center of Houston, is widely published and serves on the Board of Directors of the Pediatric Radiation Oncology Society.

He is board certified in pediatrics, pediatric hematology-oncology, and radiation oncology. Dr. Woo's areas of clinical and research interest are tumors of the blood, bone, nervous system, and soft tissue in children and adults. He has published more than 140 articles in peer-reviewed journals and authored more than 20 book chapters.

shiao y. woo



is the President of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), Bethesda, Maryland, and Professor of Medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee. He is an international authority on radiation effects and currently serves on the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and as a U.S. advisor to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. During 27 y of service in the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. Boice developed and became the first chief of the Radiation Epidemiology Branch at the National Cancer Institute.

Dr. Boice has established programs of research in all major areas of radiation epidemiology, with major projects dealing with populations exposed to medical, occupational, military and environmental radiation. These research efforts have aimed at clarifying cancer and other health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, especially at low-dose levels. Boice's seminal discoveries and over 460 publications have been used to formulate public health measures to reduce population exposure to radiation and prevent radiation-associated diseases.

He has delivered the Laurison S. Taylor Lecture at the NCRP and the Fessinger-Springer Lecture at the University of Texas at El Paso. In 2008, Dr. Boice received the Harvard School of Public Health Alumni Award of Merit. He has also received the E.O. Lawrence Award from the Department of Energy — an honor bestowed on Richard Feynman and Murray Gell-Mann among others — and the Gorgas Medal from the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. In 1999 he received the outstanding alumnus award from the University of Texas at El Paso (formerly Texas Western College). Dr. Boice directs the Million U.S. Radiation Workers and Veterans Study to examine the lifetime risk of cancer following relatively low-dose exposures received gradually over time.

john d. boice, jr., NCRP Contact


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Last modified: March 22, 2017