PAC 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues

PAC 5 Publications

PAC Meeting, March 5, 2017
L to R / Standing: Katherine Kiel, Vincent Holahan, Kathryn Higley, Bruce Napier (Co-Chair), Jonathan Edwards, Allen Croff, Andrew Wallo
Seated: Jill Lipoti, Ruth McBurney, S.Y. Chen (SVP), William Kennedy, Michael Noska

PAC 5 provides oversight for activities related to environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. Functioning within the scope of PAC 5 is:

Currently authorized but unfunded activities within this program area are:

  • assessment of measurement methodologies for environmental indicators of past releases (with PAC 6);
  • case studies and lessons learned from remediation of sites and facilities with radioactive contamination;
  • clearance as a radiation protection strategy for radioactive material management;
  • development of a risk assessment and risk management parameter handbook;
  • radiation protection criteria for plants and animals;
  • risk-based corrective action in remediation of contaminated ecosystems; and
  • usage factors for environmental dose calculations.

NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents, was released on December 31, 2014.

Since 2013 PAC 5 has been working to identify and develop viable topics for further development. To-date, there are three potential projects under consideration, and one of them has been approved by the NCRP Board to be further developed into a funded project:

  • radiation protection for NORM/TENORM from oil and gas recovery;
  • follow-on work of NCRP Report No. 175; and
  • advancement in radioecology.

PAC 5 also considers other possibilities for addressing the environmental issues that could influence future policy making in the long-term release of radioactive materials.

PAC 5 met on March 15, 2015 in conjunction with the NCRP 2015 Annual Meeting. PAC 5 is considering other potential initiatives such as follow‐on work to Report No. 175 on long‐term recovery from nuclear or radiological incidents, along with other possibilities. PAC 5 is working to contribute to CC 1 report in the area of environmental protection.

PAC 5 will meet in conjunction with the 2016 Annual Meeting on April 11, 2016.

The membership of PAC 5 is:




is currently Director of Professional Master of Health Physic Program at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago. Prior to joining IIT, he was Senior Environmental Systems Engineer and also served as the Strategic Area Manager in Risk and Waste Management in the Environmental Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. He received his BS in nuclear engineering from National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan and obtained his MS and PhD in nuclear engineering from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana. Dr. Chen's professional interests include radiation protection, human and environmental health risk, and nuclear accident analysis; with special expertise in environmental cleanup, radioactive material disposition management, and nuclear waste transportation.

Dr. Chen has been a NCRP Council member since 1999, and served on its Board (2004 to 2011). He currently serves as NCRP Scientific Vice President on Environmental Radiation and Waste Issues (since 2004). Dr. Chen has served on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board/Radiation Advisory Committee since 2009. He is a long-time member of the Health Physics Society and of the American Nuclear Society. He was elected to Fellow by the Health Physics Society in 2013, and is a Certified Health Physicist by the American Board of Health Physics. While at Argonne, Dr. Chen developed an integrated risk assessment program that addresses the broad-based issues to support federal risk-based policies. Dr. Chen had served on numerous capacities at NCRP, including chairing Scientific Committee (SC) 87-4 which led to the publication of Report No. 141, Managing Potentially Radioactive Scarp Metal, and also chairing SC 5-1, Decision Making for Late-Late Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. He served as Chair of NCRP 2005 Annual Meeting Program Committee, Managing the Disposition of Low-Activity Radioactive Materials, and as Co-Chair of NCRP 2013 Annual Meeting Program Committee, Radiation Dose and the Impacts on Exposed Populations.

Shih-Yew chen, Vice President



is a Staff Scientist in the Radiological Science and Engineering Group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington and has been for the past 35 y. Mr. Napier works with the development and operation of models concerned with the environmental transport of radiological and chemical contaminants. His expertise and experience lie in the areas of radiation dose reconstruction, computer modeling, environmental analysis, and human health risk analysis.

He is an author of the widely-used GENII computer code. Mr. Napier was the Chief Scientist for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project that evaluated releases from the Hanford Site during production of plutonium. He is now a Principal Investigator for the U.S./Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, working on the dose reconstructions at the Russian Mayak Production Association for both the workers at and the populations living near the points of atmospheric release and along the Techa River downstream. Mr. Napier is a member of the Board of Directors of NCRP, a committee member of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board and the National Academy of Sciences, a Fellow of the Health Physics Society, and Chair of oversight panels for the National Cancer Institute's Chernobyl Studies.

bruce a. napier, Co-Chair
Croff A


Croff A

is an adjunct professor at Vanderbilt University lecturing and participating in projects concerning the nuclear engineering and the nuclear fuel cycle, and a consultant to the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. He worked at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for 30 y in areas concerning waste management, nuclear fuel cycle, and nuclear materials research and development. His career at ORNL included creation of the ORIGEN2 computer code, developing and evaluating radioactive waste classification systems, and evaluating current and advanced nuclear fuel cycles.

After retiring from ORNL in 2003, he was vice-chairman of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and Materials that provided technical advice to the commissioners of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on waste disposal, the fuel cycle, and nuclear materials management from 2004 to 2008. He then became a senior technical advisor to the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future from 2010 to 2012 in parallel with his activities at Vanderbilt University.

Throughout his career he had extensive external U.S. and international involvements on technical review, oversight and integration committees. He has been a member of 10 committees, and the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board of the National Academy of Sciences, he led the committee that wrote NCRP Report No. 139 concerning risk-based waste classification, he was a member of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee, and chaired the Nuclear Development Committee of the Nuclear Energy Agency for 10 y.

allen g. croff
J. Edwards

Jonathan D. Edwards

Edwards J

Jonathan D. Edwards became Director of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Radiation Protection Division in December of 2008. As Division Director, he is responsible for several programs including EPA's radiological emergency response program, environmental oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy's deep geological repository known as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico; scientific and technical radiation risk assessments; and other radiation protection activities and programs.

Mr. Edwards graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1985, completed 2 y of post-graduate nuclear engineering instruction and training, and served on the fast attack submarine USS SPADEFISH (SSN-668) as Main Propulsion Assistant and Assistant Engineer.

Upon leaving the Navy in 1993, Mr. Edwards began work with the EPA as a health physicist in the radiation program, going on to work with the Office of Science Policy in the EPA Office of Research and Development. In early 2003, at about the time of the creation of the U.S .Department of Homeland Security, then-EPA Administrator Christy Todd Whitman approved his reassignment to Deputy Director of EPA's Office of Homeland Security (OHS), a new policy office formed to advise the EPA Administrator on homeland security issues. Mr. Edwards served a number of years with EPA's OHS, garnering wide respect for his agency-wide leadership on initial EPA homeland security policies and strategies. He served with OHS until his current assignment as Director, Radiation Protection Division.

Jonathan D. Edwards
Field RW

R. William Field

Field RW is a Professor at the University of Iowa's (UI) College of Public Health with appointments in the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and Department of Epidemiology. He also serves as a Professor of Toxicology in the Graduate College at UI. He has been the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health funded Occupational Epidemiology Training Program, at UI, since its inception in 2005.

Dr. Field serves as a member of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board and chaired the Board’s Radiation Advisory Committee in 2014. He also served as the U.S. Science Representative, and workgroup chair, to the World Health Organization’s International Radon Project. In 2009, he was appointed by President Obama to the Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health. National Academy of Science service includes a 2005 to 2006 committee that reviewed the worker and public health programs administered by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, a 2010 to 2012 committee that examined the health risks posed by uranium mining in Virginia, and a 2013 to 2014 committee that developed pilot planning for a future analysis of cancer risks in populations living near nuclear facilities.

Dr. Field has been actively involved in radiation-related public health research for over 30 y. Professional memberships include: The Health Physics Society (since 1984), the Council of Radiation Control Program Directors (honorary member), the International Commission on Occupational Health, and the College of Epidemiology (Fellow).

R. William Field
Kathryn A. Higley

Kathryn A. Higley


Kathryn A. Higley is a Professor and Head of the School of Nuclear Science and Engineering in the College of Engineering at Oregon State University. Dr. Higley received both her PhD and MS in Radiological Health Sciences from Colorado State University, and her BA in Chemistry from Reed College. She has held both Reactor Operator and Senior Reactor Operator's licenses, and is a former Reactor Supervisor for the Reed College TRIGA reactor. Dr. Higley started her career as a Radioecologist for Portland General Electric. She later worked for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a Senior Research Scientist in the area of environmental health physics. Dr. Higley has been at Oregon State University since 1994 teaching undergraduate and graduate classes on radioecology, dosimetry, radiation protection, radiochemistry, and radiation biology.

Her fields of interest include environmental transport and fate of radionuclides, radioecology, radiochemistry, radiation dose assessment, neutron activation analysis, nuclear emergency response, and environmental regulations. She is vice-chair of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Committee 5 (protection of the environment); a fellow of the Health Physics Society and a Certified Health Physicist.

Kathryn A. Higley

E. Vincent Holahan


is a radiation biologist with a specialization cellular and molecular biology. He has BS degrees in chemistry and biology from Gonzaga University and a PhD in radiology and radiation biology from Colorado State University. He has been a member of the Radiation Research Society since 1978. He currently is employed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and is the Senior Level Technical Advisor for Health Physics in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards. In this position he is responsible for performing risk assessment analyses designed to improve the knowledge of actual and potential radiological impacts of NRC licensed facilities and activities. In conjunction with NCRP and the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences (NRC/NAS), he assists in the development of the technical basis for initiating, planning and issuing new federal regulations and guidance to limit exposure to ionizing radiation from licensed byproduct material in order to protect public health and safety and the environment.

Dr. Holahan's activities include service as a technical advisor to the U.S. delegation to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation since 2000. He also has served as the NRC delegate to the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health and as the past Vice Chairman to the NEA Information System on Occupational Exposure. Dr. Holahan also represents the United States at the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Radiation Safety Standards Committee and provides technical support to the IAEA Radiation Safety and Monitoring Section. Prior to joining the NRC in 1996, Dr. Holahan served as a Senior Program Officer to the Board on Army Science and Technology at NRC/NAS and as a member of the U.S. Army. During his 35 y of service in the U.S. Army and Army Reserve, COL (retired) Holahan was assigned to a variety of positions as a nuclear medical sciences officer and is a U.S. Department of Defense certified Master Consequence Management Specialist for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosive events.

e. vincent holahan



has extensive experience as a project manager, task leader, and individual contributor covering a broad range of health physics and nuclear engineering topics. He received his BS and MS degrees in Nuclear Engineering from Kansas State University. Mr. Kennedy has been involved in the development of environmental pathway and radiation dosimetry models used to assess potential health and environmental impacts that resulted from releases of radionuclides to the environment.

He specializes in the use of these models in environmental dose reconstruction, radioactive materials transport, radioactive waste disposal, and evaluation of nuclear facility operating practices. Over the past 37 y, Mr. Kennedy has led and contributed to a variety of projects for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and private industry. He has been involved with development of the technical basis for revised standards and regulations, and serves as the chair of ANSI/HPS N13.12, Surface and volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance. He served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria, and was a member of the IAEA Advisory Groups to evaluate the Derivation of Exempt Quantities for Application to Terrestrial Waste Disposal and Derivation of Exempt Quantities for Recycle of Materials from Nuclear Facilities.

He was an invited lecturer for IAEA training courses on Management of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Power Plants at Argonne National Laboratory; on Safety Assessment Modeling for Low and Intermediate Radwastes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in Cairo, Egypt; and on Environmental Monitoring in Kiev, Ukraine. In 1990, he received the Health Physics Society's (HPS) prestigious Elda E. Anderson Award. He served as a member of the HPS Board of Directors from 1998 through 2001 and was selected as a fellow of the society in 2002. He was a member of the U.S. delegation to the 10th Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association in Hiroshima, Japan.

william e. kennedy, jr.



is a Professor of Economics at the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts. Her research is on real estate price indices, racial discrimination in housing markets, and the demand for environmental quality in the United States. Her work has been published in journals such as Land Economics and the Journal of Urban Economics. She is currently a board member for the New England Economic Partnership and is on the Board of Economic Advisors for Associated Industries of Massachusetts. In the past she served on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance. She received her PhD in Economics from the University of California at San Diego and her AB from Occidental College.

katherine a. kiel
Lipoti Jill


Lipoti Jill

was the Director of Water Monitoring and Standards at the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection until her retirement in 2013. From 1989 to 2010, she directed the activities of the Radiation Protection Programs for New Jersey, with responsibility for the x ray, radioactive materials, nuclear emergency response, environmental monitoring, radon, and nonionizing programs, involving regulation and licensure of professionals. She received the Edward J. Ill Excellence in Medicine Award in 2009 for her work in reducing patient radiation dose from x rays. Dr. Lipoti served as the New Jersey Commissioner to the Atlantic Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. Dr. Lipoti was elected to the Board of Directors and as Chairperson for the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), a nonprofit organization representing all 50 states. In 2000, she received the Gerald S. Parker Award of Merit, the CRCPD's highest award. Dr. Lipoti was elected to NCRP in 2001 and has served on the Board of Directors, Program Area Committee 5 on Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues, and on Scientific Committee 5-1, Approach to Optimizing Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery From Nuclear or Radiological Terrorism Incidents.

She served as a member and chair of the Radiation Advisory Committee of the Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board (SAB) and also served on the SAB's Committee on Science Integration for Decision Making. She served on the Food and Drug Administration's Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee. Dr. Lipoti served on the National Academies committee to write a report on Uranium Mining in Virginia under the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources. Dr. Lipoti received the Distinguished Alumni George H. Cook Award, Cook College, Rutgers University. She received her PhD in Environmental Science from Rutgers University in 1985. She has traveled to Uganda and Ethiopia on missions for the International Atomic Energy Agency.

jill a. lipoti



is the Executive Director of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors. In that position, she manages and directs the administrative office for the organization. Prior to taking that position in January 2007, she was the Manager of the Radiation Safety Licensing Branch at the Texas Department of State Health Services, culminating 25 y of service in the Texas Radiation Control Program, most of which involved licensing and standards development.

Ms. McBurney has served on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Advisory Committee on the Medical Use of Isotopes and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's National Mammography Quality Assurance Advisory Committee. She is currently serving as a Member of NCRP, and is also on the Board of Directors. She served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency in the categorization of radiation sources and recently served on a committee of the National Academy of Science regarding replacement technologies for high-risk radiation sources. She has also been a U.S. delegate to the International Radiation Protection Association's 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th Congresses.

Ms. McBurney holds a BS in Biology from Henderson State University in Arkansas and an MS in Radiation Sciences from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. She is also certified in comprehensive health physics by the American Board of Health Physics.

Ruth E. McBurney
Powell B

Brian A. Powell

Powell B

is the Jerry E. and Harriet Calvert Dempsey Associate Professor of Waste Management in the Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences at Clemson University. Dr. Powell's research focuses on understanding and prediction of the physical, chemical and biological processes which govern the mobility of radionuclides in natural and engineered systems. He has a BS in Chemistry from the University of Montevallo, and an MS and PhD in Environmental Engineering and Science from Clemson University. Prior to joining the faculty at Clemson University, Dr. Powell held postdoctoral appointments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dr. Powell has conducted sponsored research in a wide range of projects dealing with topics of sorption and environmental transport of actinides, nuclear forensics, development of radiation detection and radiation detection laboratory courses, iodine, radium, strontium geochemistry in wetland and subsurface sediments, radionuclide geochemistry of saltstone and solid waste performance assessments at the Savannah River Site, measurement of thermodynamic parameters supporting advanced fuel cycle chemistry, and related topics. The knowledge gained from this work can be used to evaluate risk posed by subsurface contamination of radionuclides, to design remediation strategies for contaminated sites, and to facilitate the use of safe disposal practices.

Along with serving on the NAMP PAC 5 committee, Dr. Powell is also a member of the Radiation Safety Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Scientific Advisory Board and a member/lecturer for the U.S. Department of Energy National Analytical Management Program, Education and Training Subcommittee. Additionally, Dr. Powell is the winner of the 2014 South Carolina Governor's Young Researcher Award for Excellence in Scientific Research and the 2011 Clemson University Sigma Xi Young Investigator of the Year.

brian a. powell
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Andrew Wallo, III

is a health and environmental physicist with expertise in public and environmental radiation protection, radioactive waste management, emergency response, and radiation protection policy. He has a BS in physics from Wilkes University and an MS in radiation science from Georgetown University. He has been a member of the Health Physics Society for 29 y and has served as a member or consultant to a number of NCRP, American National Standards Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency working groups and committees covering radioactive waste, waste security, and residual radioactive material control.

He is currently with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is the Deputy Director of the Office of Environmental Protection, Sustainability Support, and Corporate Safety Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety, and Security. In this position he is responsible for developing agency radiation and environmental protection policy and requirements, and for supporting analyses and programs to improve worker and public safety and the environment. He previously served as Deputy Director in the Office of Nuclear Safety, Quality Assurance and Environment where responsibilities included development of DOE nuclear safety, quality assurance, and environmental protection requirements and expectations.

Responsibilities also included the DOE lead for coordinating on environmental protection issues including work with other agencies on the development of protective action guidance for radiological emergencies, and federal radiation protection guidance.. He is the DOE representative to the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards. Mr. Wallo also serves as the a representative to the DOE Federal Low Level Waste Review Group. Prior to joining DOE, Mr. Wallo was employed by the Aerospace Corporation and the MITRE Corporate working in a variety of areas related to radiation protection and environmental measurement, monitoring and control.

Andrew Wallo, III



is the President of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), Bethesda, Maryland, and Professor of Medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee. He is an international authority on radiation effects and currently serves on the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and as a U.S. advisor to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. During 27 y of service in the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. Boice developed and became the first chief of the Radiation Epidemiology Branch at the National Cancer Institute.

Dr. Boice has established programs of research in all major areas of radiation epidemiology, with major projects dealing with populations exposed to medical, occupational, military and environmental radiation. These research efforts have aimed at clarifying cancer and other health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, especially at low-dose levels. Boice's seminal discoveries and over 460 publications have been used to formulate public health measures to reduce population exposure to radiation and prevent radiation-associated diseases.

He has delivered the Laurison S. Taylor Lecture at the NCRP and the Fessinger-Springer Lecture at the University of Texas at El Paso. In 2008, Dr. Boice received the Harvard School of Public Health Alumni Award of Merit. He has also received the E.O. Lawrence Award from the Department of Energy — an honor bestowed on Richard Feynman and Murray Gell-Mann among others — and the Gorgas Medal from the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. In 1999 he received the outstanding alumnus award from the University of Texas at El Paso (formerly Texas Western College). Dr. Boice directs the Million U.S. Radiation Workers and Veterans Study to examine the lifetime risk of cancer following relatively low-dose exposures received gradually over time.

john d. boice, jr., NCRP Contact


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Last modified: May 26, 2017