PAC 6: Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry

PAC 6 Publications

PAC 6 is responsible for oversight of activities related to radiation measurements and dosimetry. There is one active scientific committee within PAC 6:

SC 6-9 was formed in the fourth quarter 2012 as part of the Million Person Study to better understand and evaluate reported historical doses of U.S. radiation workers and nuclear weapons test participants to be able to best integrate personnel doses into epidemiology studies.

Currently authorized but unfunded activities within this program area are:

  • aerosol measurements;
  • biological dosimetry;
  • requirements and methods for recording information for accurate dose reconstruction in nuclear or radiological incidents;
  • update of NCRP Report No. 58, Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements; and
  • wound model dose coefficients.

Through numerous preliminary meetings, SC 2-6 was established in the fourth quarter of 2012 and, combined with PAC 6, has been working on a joint project concerning radiological protection in the area of nanoparticles (see earlier description of work completed by SC 2-6).

PAC 6 met on March 15, 2015 in conjunction with the NCRP 2015 Annual Meeting. Various concept ideas put forward for discussion including: (1) simulation studies of astronaut space exposure with simultaneous modeling of detector responses, (2) biological consequences resulting from high levels of exposures of personnel working on microwave telecommunication towers, (3) practical methods for data collection for dose reconstruction following mass exposure events, (4) update of NCRP Report No. 58 on radioactivity measurements, (5) eye dosimetry, and (6) neutron dosimetry.

PAC 6 will meet in conjunction with the 2016 Annual Meeting on April 11, 2016.

NCRP is grateful to the U.S. Department of Energy and the Health Physics Society for providing financial support for a preliminary scoping study of potential work in this area.

The membership of PAC 6 is:

Simon S


Simon S

received a BS in Physics from the University of Texas, an MS in Radiological Physics from the University of Texas Health Sciences Center in Dallas, and a PhD in Radiological Health Sciences from Colorado State University. Early in his career, he worked in medical physics and was the first treatment planner for clinical trials of treatments of solid tumors with negative pi-mesons at the Los Alamos Physics Meson Facility. Later specializing in environmental radioactivity, he directed the first nationwide monitoring program of the Marshall Islands for residual contamination from nuclear testing. He also participated in the radiological monitoring of numerous other nuclear test sites worldwide including Johnston Island, French Polynesia, and Algeria and has lead, or participated in, health risk studies of fallout exposures in Utah, the Marshall Islands, and Kazakhstan.

In 2000, Dr. Simon joined the National Cancer Institute's Radiation Epidemiology Branch as an expert in dose reconstruction and presently heads the Dosimetry Unit in that group. Steve is a member of NCRP and has been an Associate Editor of Health Physics for 20 y. In 2011 during the Fukushima crisis, Steve was deployed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to the U.S. Embassy in Japan to assist with the protection of American citizens.

steven l. simon, Vice President



earned his BSc degree in physics in 1977 from the University of São Paulo, Brazil; his MSc degree in nuclear engineering in 1980 from the Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro; and PhD degree in biophysics in 1990 from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. He worked as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Utah, Environmental Radiation Toxicology Laboratory from 1991 to1995. He has worked for more than 30 y in mathematical modeling of human metabolism regarding intake, distribution, retention and excretion of radionuclides for several age groups for internal dosimetry applications; scientific software design and development including software quality assurance procedures; and interpretation of monitoring data of radiation workers.

He is currently an Internal Dosimetrist at Los Alamos National Laboratory since 2003. He was responsible for calculating all internal doses and evaluating the efficacy of Prussian Blue for all age groups due to the Goiania radioactive accident in 1987. He has been serving the International Commission on Radiological Protection as a member of the Task Group on Dose Calculations since 1995 and as a member of Committee 2 since 2013. He has published several peer-reviewed journal articles.

luiz bertelli
Blakely W


Blakely W

is a Senior Staff Scientist in the Radiation Biodosimetry Research Program at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI), Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS). He received his BA in Zoology in 1974 at San Diego State University and PhD in Radiation Biology in 1980 at the University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign under the supervision of his doctoral advisor, Dr. Howard S. Ducoff. He completed his postdoctorate study on DNA radiation chemistry in Dr. John F. Ward's laboratory at the University of California, San Diego. In 1983 he joined AFRRI/USUHS, his present affiliation. Dr. Blakely's research activities have focused on molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity, cell-cycle effects, DNA damage and repair, and biological dosimetry. He served as a guest editor for several issues of journals associated with international meetings, an associate editor for the Radiation Research, and Chairman of the NATO Research Study Group-Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures. He presently is the course director of the Radiation Biology graduate course at his University.

He also serves as a U.S. representative on the ISO TC85/SC2 (Radiation Protection) Working Group 18 (Performance Criteria for Service Laboratories Performing Biological Dosimetry by Cytogenetics), an assistant professor in the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Preventive Medicine and Biometrics Department, and an senior associate faculty at Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site. Elected as a Council member in 2003 and is currently serving a second 6 y term. He served as the Program Chair of NCRP 2004 Annual Meeting entitled: Advances in Consequence Management for Radiological Terrorism Events and is currently a member of NCRP PAC 6 - Dosimetry.

william f. blakely



is Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics in the J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Florida (UF). He serves as Director of ALRADS – the Advanced Laboratory for Radiation Dosimetry Studies at UF. Dr. Bolch earned his BSE degree in environmental engineering in 1984, his ME and PhD degrees in radiological physics in 1986 and 1998, respectively, from the University of Florida. He has been certified by the American Board of Health Physics since 1994 and licensed in Radiological Health Engineering by the Texas Board of Professional Engineers since 1992. In 2011, Dr. Bolch was elected Fellow of both the Health Physics Society and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. He has been a member of the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee since 1993, a member of NCRP since 2005, and a member of Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) since 2005.

Within the latter, he serves as C2 Secretary and Leader of the ICRP Task Group on Dose Calculations. He has published over 160 peer-reviewed journal articles, coauthored/edited 14 books/book chapters, and served as coauthor on two NCRP reports, two ICRP publications, and two MIRD monographs. Dr. Bolch has managed a broad research program including (1) National Cancer Institute and U.S. Department of Energy funded projects to construct high-resolution models of the skeleton to support dose-response studies in radionuclide therapy and radiation epidemiology, (2) National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering funded projects to develop scalable NURBS-based and voxel-based computational phantoms of adult and pediatric patients and associated software for organ dose assessment in nuclear medicine, computed tomography, interventional fluoroscopy, and radiotherapy, (3) private company funded projects to develop stereotactic kilovoltage x-ray treatments for age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, and (4) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded projects in stochastic modeling of worker inhalation and gamma-ray exposures following radiological accidents and potential terrorist events.

wesley e. bolch



has been a Research Professor at Texas A&M University since 1996. His previous experience includes Biology and Chemistry Department Staff Scientist from 1971 to 1991 and Radiation Physics and Chemistry Section Manager from 1991 to 1995 at Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He received his BA degree from Linfield College and PhD from Oregon State University in 1972.

Dr. Braby is a former member of the NCRP Board of Directors and a member of several NCRP scientific committees (SC) including SC 88 on Fluence as a Basis of a System of Radiation Protection for Astronauts, SC 1-7 on Research Needs for Deep Space Missions, chair of SC 1-11 on Safety Considerations for Pulsed Fast Neutron Surveillance Systems, SC 6-1 on Uncertainties in Measuring External Beam Irradiation, SC 1-20 on the biological effects of low energy x rays, and Chairman of SC 6-5 on Safety of Cargo Inspection Systems Using High Energy Photons. He was also Chair of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) working committee on characterizing low level radiation exposure, and member of ICRU working committee to prepare a report on microdosimetry.


leslie a. braby
Brey R


Brey R

Professor of Health Physics, Chair Department of Nuclear Engineering and Health Physics, Director of the Idaho State University (ISU) Health Physics Program. Dr. Richard Brey received his PhD from Purdue University in Health Physics in 1994. He was the recipient of the Elda E. Anderson Award in 2002. He has engaged in a wide variety of research varying from radiation physics and detection to agricultural applications of radiation and radiation producing machines, this list importantly includes internal dosimetry; in which he has engaged in various collaborative efforts including the evaluation of historical exposures, evaluation of animal experimental data, and redefining/evaluating radioactive material translocation models. Since 1995 Dr. Brey has been the director of an environmental radioanalytical laboratory which performs approximately 1,200 sample analyses per quarter. Over the years he has served as the Director of the ISU Technical Safety Office and University Radiation Safety Officer as well as in other administrative and technical positions

richard r. brey



received a BS in nuclear engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and an MS in environmental health sciences and a PhD in radiological health from New York University. For almost 40 y, he has been studying the metabolism, biokinetics, dosimetry, biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides, developing methods for removing radionuclides from the body (decorporation), and studying the mechanisms of deposition, clearance and retention of inhaled materials. Most of this research was performed at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) (formerly the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute), where he worked for 23 y. From 2000 through 2007, he was team leader for internal dosimetry at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, assessing radiation doses for workers who were exposed to radionuclides associated with the nuclear weapons industry.

In 2007, he returned to LRRI as director of the Center for Countermeasures Against Radiation where he evaluated the efficacy of chemical compounds designed to decorporate radionuclides as well as drugs designed to ameliorate the effects of acute radiation syndrome from large external radiation doses in small and large animal models. He is a past president of the Health Physics Society, received its Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award in 2002, and has given several honorary lectures (Newell Stannard Memorial Lecture, 2006; G. William Morgan Lecture, HPS, 2009; inaugural Patricia W. Durbin Memorial Lecture, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2010). He is a member of scientific committees of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, NCRP (a past board member), the International Agency for Research on Cancer, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. National Academies of Science.

raymond a guilmette

Richard T. Kouzes


is a Laboratory Fellow at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) working in the areas of neutrino science, neutron and gamma-ray detection, homeland security, and nonproliferation. His work on homeland security has been for the development and deployment of radioactive material interdiction equipment at U.S. borders, and for 3 y he was the Principal Investigator and Technical Lead for the U.S. Customs and Border Protection's Radiation Portal Monitor Project, the largest single project at PNNL. His Safeguards projects deal with neutron detection coincidence counters for material assay.

He is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is an adjunct Professor of Physics at Washington State University.

Dr. Kouzes earned his PhD in physics from Princeton University in 1974. He is an author of over 150 peer reviewed papers and over 400 formal reports and conference proceedings.

richard t. kouzes
Jeffrey J. Whicker

Jeffrey J. Whicker


Jeffrey Whicker has worked at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 25 y. He received a PhD in Environmental and Radiological Health Science from Colorado State University and is certified by the American Board of Health Physics. He is an author or co-author on over 125 scientific publications, invited talks, book chapters, and presentations mostly on indoor and outdoor radiological air quality and measurement that span issues ranging from worker protection, homeland security, public risk assessment, and environmental quality. His body of work has been cited in peer-reviewed journals over 500 times. Dr. Whicker served on the Editorial Board for the journal Radiation Protection Dosimetry and as President of the Environmental/Radon Section of the Health Physics Society.

Jeffrey J. Whicker
Yoder C


Yoder C

has directed Landauer's technical activities relating to radiation dosimetry, particularly for applications in radiation protection, since joining Landauer in 1983. Additionally, he oversees subsidiary and partner businesses located in Australia, Brazil, China, France, Mexico, Japan, Sweden and Turkey.

An internationally known expert in radiation monitoring, Dr. Yoder led Landauer's transition from film and thermoluminescent dosimetry technology to optically stimulated luminescence, an assignment that required strategic planning and direction in areas spanning scientific research, product development, manufacturing, laboratory operations and marketing. From 1993 to 2001, he was Vice President of Operations and managed Landauer's manufacturing and analytical laboratory activities in addition to overseeing research and development programs.

Dr. Yoder is a member of NCRP and former President of the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards. He has served on several national and international committees to develop dosimetry standards. He was a member of a National Research Council committee that examined the accuracy of film badge measurements made during atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. He currently heads the Advisory Committee for the School of Health Sciences at Purdue University.

Dr. Yoder earned his MS and PhD degrees in Bionucleonics at Purdue University and received a BS in Pre-Medicine from Davidson College. He also completed the Executive Program at Stanford University. He is Certified in Comprehensive Health Physics by the American Board of Health Physics.

r. craig yoder
Zeitlin C


Zeitlin C

is a Principal Science in the Space Science Division of Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), headquartered in San Antonio, Texas. Dr. Zeitlin has been at SwRI since 2008, working on the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) aboard the Curiosity Mars rover and a newer version of RAD for the International Space Station. Dr. Zeitlin received his BS from the University of California Berkeley in 1981 and his PhD in experimental high-energy particle physics from University of California Davis in 1988. His PhD research and postdoctoral work were done at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), where he studied two-photon interactions and decays of the Z boson.

Dr. Zeitlin moved from SLAC to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991 to join an experimental nuclear physics group working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to make ground-based measurements relevant to the transport of cosmic radiation through shielding materials and tissue. This began an association with NASA's programs in space radiation physics and biology that continues to the present. Dr. Zeitlin's current research interests are in the analysis of flight data returned from RAD and other space-borne detectors, as well as the development of improved compact spectrometers and dosimeters for spaceflight.

cary zeitlin



is an expert on radiation health matters and is certified as a health physicist by the American Board of Health Physics. He served a 20 y career as a Radiation Health Officer in the U.S. Navy Medical Service Corps, retiring from the Navy with the rank of Commander. Dr. Zeman's Navy assignments included Radiation Safety Officer for the National Naval Medical Center, and research scientist and program manager at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. His research interests were in the areas of radiation dosimetry for neutrons, personnel radiation dosimetry, and the biological effects of acute radiation exposure. Following naval service, Dr. Zeman held the positions of Radiological Safety Officer at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, Radiological Control Manager at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California, and Manager of Radiation Protection and Product Safety at AT&T Bell Laboratories / Lucent Technologies in New Jersey. At Bell Labs / Lucent Technologies, Dr. Zeman led the department that dealt with evaluating product safety for wireless and optical communications systems. He has authored a number of publications on ionizing and nonionizing radiation effects and measurements.

Dr. Zeman is currently affiliated with the Illinois Institute of Technology graduate program in health physics. He continues to serve as a member of Council on the congressionally chartered NCRP as well as a member of NCRP Program Area Committee 6 on Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry; he is a member of the congressionally mandated Veterans Advisory Board on Dose Reconstruction; and is the Ask-The-Expert topic editor for radiofrequency radiation, cell phone and laser safety for the Health Physics Society.

gary h. zeman



is the President of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), Bethesda, Maryland, and Professor of Medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee. He is an international authority on radiation effects and currently serves on the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and as a U.S. advisor to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. During 27 y of service in the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. Boice developed and became the first chief of the Radiation Epidemiology Branch at the National Cancer Institute.

Dr. Boice has established programs of research in all major areas of radiation epidemiology, with major projects dealing with populations exposed to medical, occupational, military and environmental radiation. These research efforts have aimed at clarifying cancer and other health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, especially at low-dose levels. Boice's seminal discoveries and over 460 publications have been used to formulate public health measures to reduce population exposure to radiation and prevent radiation-associated diseases.

He has delivered the Laurison S. Taylor Lecture at the NCRP and the Fessinger-Springer Lecture at the University of Texas at El Paso. In 2008, Dr. Boice received the Harvard School of Public Health Alumni Award of Merit. He has also received the E.O. Lawrence Award from the Department of Energy — an honor bestowed on Richard Feynman and Murray Gell-Mann among others — and the Gorgas Medal from the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. In 1999 he received the outstanding alumnus award from the University of Texas at El Paso (formerly Texas Western College). Dr. Boice directs the Million U.S. Radiation Workers and Veterans Study to examine the lifetime risk of cancer following relatively low-dose exposures received gradually over time.

john d. boice, jr., NCRP Contact


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Last modified: January 23, 2017