SC 3-1: Guidance for Emergency Responder Dosimetry

Members only

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) requested assistance in developing guidance for dosimetry practices associated with response to radiation emergencies. DOHMH is concerned that various issues associated with the measurement and recording of external radiation dose under emergency conditions are not addressed fully in federal regulation or guidance. Emergency workers who have job functions in radiation emergencies but do not routinely perform duties in radiation environments are not adequately identified as radiation workers or supervisors. In fact, there is a fundamental question as to whether emergency responders would be considered radiation workers under current regulatory definitions.

A meeting with DOHMH, and Council members Steve Musolino (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Adela Salame-Alfie (previously with the New York State Department of Health, currently at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), and John Boice (NCRP) to further define the scope was conducted on December 18, 2013. DOHMH invited representatives of all interested/potentially involved city agencies including, New York Fire Department, New York Office of Emergency Management, New York Department of Environmental Protection, New York Police Department, and the New York State Department of Health. NCRP has continued discussions with U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The guidance developed by NCRP in response to the initiative from DOHMH will help to serve the national interest and other local jurisdictions by evaluating existing regulations governing dosimetric records for emergency workers during a radiation event and making recommendations for improvements.

A scoping meeting was held prior to the 2014 NCRP Annual Meeting. Topics to be addressed and potential Committee members were discussed. Technical and cost proposals have been submitted to DHS for funding.

The Committee held its first meeting on August 18–19, 2014 at NCRP in Bethesda, Maryland. Committee members made presentations, emergency responder dosimetry issues were discussed, writing assignments were made, and the second Committee meeting was scheduled for January 7–8, 2015. Teleconferences were held during October and December 2014 in preparation for the January 2015 meeting. Experts on Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-related issues briefed the Committee and the U.S. Department of Defense approach to emergency dosimetry was presented during the Committee’s second meeting on January 7–8, 2015 in Bethesda, Maryland. Presentations were also made by Committee members. Writing assignments were made and deadlines were set for posting drafts on SharePoint. Conference calls were held on February 17 and 20, 2015, and a subgroup of the Committee met on March 17, 2015 during NCRP’s Annual Meeting. The Committee will hold its third meeting on April 8–9, 2015 in New York City. The meeting will include discussions with first responders, facility tours, and reviews of draft materials. The Committee met on April 8–9, 2015 at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and Fire Department Training Center, Randall’s Island, New York. Presentations were made by Committee members and stakeholders. Writing assignments were reviewed and agreement was reached on a timeline to upload draft sections to SharePoint. A draft report was produced and sent to the full Committee on June 1, 2015. A revised draft report with a comment and adjudication matrix was produced for discussion during a subcommittee meeting held at the DHS National Urban Security Technology Laboratory on June 30, 2015. Teleconferences and webinars were held during the quarter to resolve issues and monitor progress on each draft section. Revised draft sections were received in September and compiled into a draft report by the Co-Chairs. The draft report is undergoing editing and formatting by the NCRP managing editor. It was sent to the full Committee in October 2015 in preparation for the meeting held on November 17–19 in Norwich, Connecticut. The Co-Chairs and members of the Committee made presentations at the meeting which included stakeholders from state and local governments. Jessica Wieder from EPA was added as a consultant with expertise in communications.

Steve Musolino (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Adela Salame-Alfie (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), and Jim Smith (staff consultant) met at NCRP Headquarters in Bethesda, Maryland, with John Boice (NCRP) and Marvin Rosenstein (staff consultant) on January 18, 2016, to discuss details of the process of preparing the report for PAC 3 review.

On February 15, 2016, Committee Co-Chairs, Steve Musolino and Adela Salame-Alfie, and staff consultant Jim Smith held a conference call to discuss and finalize preparation of all sections of the report for PAC 3 review.

The draft report, Guidance for Emergency Responder Dosimetry, was submitted on March 18 for PAC 3 review. A presentation is planned by the SC3-1 Committee Co-Chairs for Sunday, April 10, 2016, at the NCRP Annual Meeting in Bethesda, Maryland.

NCRP is grateful to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security for financial support of this work

The membership of SC 3-1 is:

Musolino S


Musolino S

is a scientist in the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. With more than 30 y of experience in Health Physics, his current research interests are in nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and planning for response to the consequences of radiological and nuclear terrorism. Since 1981, he has been part of the DOE Radiological Assistance Program as a Team Captain/Team Scientist and has been involved in developing radiological emergency response plans and procedures, as well as participating in a wide range of radiological and nuclear exercises and field deployments. During the Fukushima crisis, he was deployed in Japan as an Assessment Scientist with the DOE response team that was measuring the environmental consequences of the radioactive material released from the damaged nuclear power plants. Working with the first responder community in the New York metropolitan area, Dr. Musolino was involved with the development of guidance for response to the aftermath of a radiological dispersal device, and served on the scientific committee that developed NCRP Report No. 165, Responding to a Radiological or Nuclear Terrorism Incident: A Guide for Decision Makers. Earlier in his career at BNL, he was a member of the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program and participated in numerous field missions to monitor the populations living on islands affected by nuclear testing.

Dr. Musolino is a Fellow of the Health Physics Society, Distinguished Alumnus of Buffalo State College, and a member of the editorial board of the journal Health Physics. He earned a BS in engineering technology from Buffalo State College, an MS in nuclear engineering from Polytechnic Institute of New York University, and a PhD in health physics from the Georgia Institute of Technology. He is certified by the American Board of Health Physics.

stephen v. musolino, Co-Chair



is a Senior Service Fellow in the Radiation Studies Branch in the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prior to this appointment, Dr. Salame-Alfie spent 22 y with the New York State Department of Health in various capacities including Director of the Division of Environmental Health Investigation, Director of Preparedness for the Center for Environmental Health, and Director of the Bureau of Environmental Radiation Protection.

Dr. Salame-Alfie is a member of NCRP and co-chairs the SC 3-1 charged with developing dosimetry guidance for radiation emergency workers. She is a Lifetime member of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors where she served as Chair and member of the Board of Directors, and chaired several committees. She is a Fellow member of the Health Physics Society.

Dr. Salame-Alfie has extensive experience in radiological emergency preparedness and has published and co-authored many publications on the subject, including the Handbook for Responding to a Radiological Dispersal Device – First Responder Guide.

Dr. Salame-Alfie obtained her Master’s and Ph.D. in Nuclear Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York.

Adela Salame-Alfie, Co-Chair



has a BA from Stanford University and an MD from Yale University School of Medicine. She has been board certified in Pediatrics, Pediatric Hematology-Oncology and Radiation Oncology. She is the author of scores of publications in various disciplines including clinical cancer trials, genetics and epidemiology, computer usability technology, and planning for and responding to mass casualty radiation emergencies. Dr. Bader was a Senior Investigator in many cancer clinical trials, genetics and epidemiology research projects, and communications technologies projects during her 22 y in the U.S. Public Health Service at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health. She has been the Chief of the Clinical Radiation Branch of the Radiation Oncology Branch at NCI, Chief of Radiation Oncology at the Bethesda Naval Hospital (now Walter Reed), and founding physician of two private radiation oncology practices. Since 2004, Dr. Bader has also served as a Senior Medical Advisor to various U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and interagency entities charged with planning for and responding to medical aspects of mass casualty radiation emergencies. She is the Founding and Managing Editor of the HHS/Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response-sponsored website Radiation Emergency Medical Management (REMM – She has served on various committees for the American Society for Clinical Oncology and the American Society for Radiation Oncology.

judith l. bader



manages the Consequence Management programs in the Office of Emergency Response at the National Nuclear Security Administration within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The programs include atmospheric dispersion modeling, air and ground-based radiation monitoring, and radiation medicine. In 2009, he transferred from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office where he was the Chief Test Scientist. He was responsible for designing and conducting field test campaigns for radiation detection systems as applied to the preventive radiological/nuclear detection mission as well as providing subject matter expertise on detector applications and performance. Prior to joining the Federal government he was a Senior Scientist at DOE's Remote Sensing Laboratory from 1996 to 2006 where he managed or provided scientific support to several DOE emergency response teams. Most recently Dr. Blumenthal led the initial DOE response team to Japan where he spent a total of seven weeks following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Since then he has supported many U.S. and international efforts related to lessons learned from Fukushima. These include documenting best practices associated with data management during an international response and writing the occupational dose section of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Fukushima Report.

Dr. Blumenthal's background is in nuclear physics – gamma-ray and charged particle spectroscopy. He received his undergraduate degree in physics from Columbia College in 1985 and his doctorate in nuclear physics from Yale University in 1994. He did a post-doctoral fellowship at Argonne National Laboratory from 1994 to 1996. He became an Certified Health Physicist in 2003.

daniel j. blumenthal
Buddemeier B


Buddemeier B

is an associate program leader in the Global Security Directorate of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). He supports the Risk and Consequence Management Division in their efforts to evaluate the potential risk and consequence of radiological and nuclear terrorism. Mr. Buddemeier is a member of NCRP and served on the scientific committees which developed Commentary No. 19 - Key Elements of Preparing Emergency Responders for Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism (2005) and NCRP Report No. 165 – Responding to a Radiological or Nuclear Terrorism Incident: A Guide for Decision Makers (2010).

From 2003 through 2007, he was on assignment with the Department of Homeland Security's as the weapons of mass destruction emergency response and consequence management program manager for Science and Technology's emergency preparedness and response portfolio. He supported Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Homeland Security Operations Center as a radiological emergency response subject matter expert. He also facilitated the department's research, development, test and evaluation process to improve emergency response through better capabilities, protocols and standards. Prior to that, he was part of the LLNL Nuclear Counterterrorism Program and coordinated LLNL's involvement in the National Nuclear Security Administration's Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) for California, Nevada and Hawaii.

RAP is a national emergency response resource that assists federal, state and local authorities in the event of a radiological incident. As part of RAP's outreach efforts, Mr. Buddemeier has provided radiological responder training and instrumentation workshops to police, firefighters, and members of other agencies throughout the nation and abroad. He has also provided operational health physics support for various radiochemistry, plutonium handling, accelerator and dosimetry operations. He is Certified Health Physicist who received his Master's in Radiological Health Physics from San Jose State University and a BS in Nuclear Engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara.

brooke r. buddemeier



is President of Cascade Scientific, Inc., an environmental consulting firm. Dr. Grogan received her PhD from Imperial College of Science and Technology at the University of London in 1984 and has more than 25 y of experience in radioecology, environmental dose reconstruction, and the assessment of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. She first worked at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland on the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal for the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra). Dr. Grogan was actively involved in the early international cooperative efforts to test models designed to quantify the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides and other trace substances in the environment.

Validation of computer models developed to predict the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment remains a key interest of hers. In 1989 Dr. Grogan returned to the United Kingdom as a senior consultant to Intera Information Technologies before moving to the United States a few years later, where she has worked closely with Risk Assessment Corporation managing the technical aspects of a wide variety of projects that tend to focus on public health risk from environmental exposure to chemicals and radionuclides. Dr. Grogan has served on committees for the National Academy of Sciences, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the U.S. Environment Protection Agency, and NCRP. She co-edited the text book Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis published by Oxford University Press in July 2008, and authored the chapter on Model Validation.

helen a. grogan
Irwin B


Irwin B

leads the Radiological and Toxicological Sciences Program at the Vermont Department of Health. He is responsible for all aspects of the Vermont Radiation Control Program in the Healing Arts, Industrial Applications, Environmental Surveillance and Emergency Preparedness. He is Chair-Elect for the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, for which he has served on committees focused on radiological and nuclear emergency preparedness and on environmental nuclear issues. He is a Certified Health Physicist and long-time member of the Health Physics Society and the American Academy of Health Physics where he was a member of the American Board of Health Physics panel of examiners. Prior to serving in government, Dr. Irwin was Laser Safety Officer and a Radiation Safety Officer at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

During that time, he was a consultant to industry and government on measurements and the health effects of radiofrequency radiation, laser radiation, extremely low frequency and nuclear magnetic resonance electromagnetic fields, as well as ionizing radiations produced by machines and radioactive materials. His dissertation was on the health effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure from wireless telecommunications. Both his PhD and MS were earned at the University of Massachusetts Lowell. Before graduate school, Dr. Irwin worked in the commercial nuclear power industry as an instructor in radiation protection, chemistry and nuclear plant systems and operations. He started his career as a radiation protection technician controlling exposures to radiation and radioactive materials on-board U.S. Navy submarines, guided missile cruisers, and aircraft carriers at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company.

william e. irwin

Gladys A. Klemic

KlemicGis a physicist with the National Urban Security Technology Laboratory (NUSTL), a federal resource of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security which supports the development of technologies for emergency response agencies. She designs and conducts laboratory tests of radiation detectors, and operational field evaluations of prototype and commercially available equipment for firefighter and law enforcement agencies. She is active in national standards development and has been with NUSTL and its predecessor, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory since 1990. Her earlier work specialized in environmental thermoluminescence dosimetry, including conducting dosimeter research, measurements and analysis, and leading international intercomparisons. She has authored or co-authored 40 scientific and technical publications and is a member of the Health Physics Society and the National Fire Protection Association. She has a BS degree in Physics from Wayne State University and an MS degree in Physics from New York University.

Gladys A. Klemic
No Image G. Komp



is the Executive Director of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors. In that position, she manages and directs the administrative office for the organization. Prior to taking that position in January 2007, she was the Manager of the Radiation Safety Licensing Branch at the Texas Department of State Health Services, culminating 25 y of service in the Texas Radiation Control Program, most of which involved licensing and standards development.

Ms. McBurney has served on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Advisory Committee on the Medical Use of Isotopes and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's National Mammography Quality Assurance Advisory Committee. She is currently serving as a Member of NCRP, and is also on the Board of Directors. She served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency in the categorization of radiation sources and recently served on a committee of the National Academy of Science regarding replacement technologies for high-risk radiation sources. She has also been a U.S. delegate to the International Radiation Protection Association's 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th Congresses.

Ms. McBurney holds a BS in Biology from Henderson State University in Arkansas and an MS in Radiation Sciences from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. She is also certified in comprehensive health physics by the American Board of Health Physics.

Ruth E. McBurney

Jeanine Prudhomme

PrudhommeJis an Assistant Commissioner and Certified Industrial Hygienist with the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. She oversaw the Bureau of Environmental Sciences and Engineering before the events of September 11 compelled the creation of a Bureau dedicated to environmental emergency preparedness and response. Ms. Prud’homme is one of the agency’s Environmental Operations Section Chiefs and Principal Scientific Advisor in the Health Department’s Incident Command structure. After receiving her education in Environmental and Occupational Safety and Health at the City University of New York’s Hunter College, she started her civil service career in industrial hygiene at the Mayor’s Office prior to being appointed the NYC Police Department’s first Occupational Safety and Health Unit Director. With the NYC Fire Department, Jeanine co-chaired the NYC Police Department’s Securing the Cities Radiological Response and Recovery Subcommittee, which produced NYC’s first citywide radiation response plan in 2011 and has been instrumental in developing numerous emergency response plans and guidance documents.

Jeanine Prudhomme
Schlueck R

Richard Schlueck

Schlueck Ris a Battalion Chief in the Fire Department City of New York (FDNY) Special Operations Command. With more than 25 y of experience in emergency response, his current assignment in the Hazardous Materials Battalion involves the supervision of the Hazardous Materials Branch of FDNY for citywide emergency response. In addition, he manages the radiological/nuclear preparedness projects and equipment purchases for FDNY. Battalion Chief Schlueck has been a first responder subject matter expert for radiological/nuclear emergency response and planning projects with numerous entities such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Prior to joining FDNY he was an electrical engineer for Grumman Aerospace Corporation in the Radomes and Radar Systems Design Section with an additional assignment to Special Projects Research and Development.

Richard Schlueck

Jessica S. Wieder

is a member of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Center for Radiation Information and Outreach and is the senior public information officer for EPA's Radiological Emergency Response Team. Ms. Wieder was part of the team tasked with communicating about EPA's efforts and radiation levels in the United States during the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. She has facilitated international panels on public communication about radiation risks after terrorist incidents and was part of the contingency planning team for the 2011 launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. In 2010, Ms. Wieder was detailed to Federal Emergency Management Agency's Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives Branch, where she helped establish their Improvised Nuclear Device Response and Recovery Program and created the intergovernmental Nuclear/Radiological Communications Working Group. With her guidance, this group developed the nuclear detonation messaging document Improvised Nuclear Device Response and Recovery: Communicating in the Immediate Aftermath. She was also the lead author for the communications chapter for the second edition of the White House's Planning Guidance for Response to a Nuclear Detonation. In 2013, she was awarded EPA's Exemplary Customer Service Award for her leadership in enabling all levels of government to provide quick, effective communications to the American people in response to large-scale radiological emergencies.

Jessica S. Wieder
Haley W

William Haley

Haley Wbecame the Director of Operations for Emergency Management Services International (EMSI) in 2015, following a successful career with government and industry. In this role, he manages a myriad of business aspects and serves as an incident management consultant, with a specialty in nuclear and radiological incidents.

Prior to joining EMSI, Mr. Haley spent almost a decade with Oak Ridge Associated Universities/Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education as a Senior Operations Planner. In this capacity, he managed the preparedness and incident management projects for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA) Office of Emergency Response, including training development and delivery, exercise support, policy and procedures development, and response issues. As the subject matter expert on all issues related to incident management, Mr. Haley coordinated ICS and incident management training, as well as providing key oversight of response curriculum and job aid development. Well versed in the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP), he designed realistic exercises that evaluated NIMS principles, such as command and management (ICS and MACS), to improve DOE/NNSA responses.

Prior to his work with DOE/NNSA, Mr. Haley worked at the Federal Emergency Management Agency National Incident Management System (NIMS) Integration Center during the initial roll of out NIMS. An integral part of the NIMS Integration Center, he assisted in the national implementation of NIMS, advising local, state, federal, tribal, private sector, and nongovernmental stakeholders on NIMS adoption and implementation.

A field operator at heart, Mr. Haley started his career in emergency management as a fire fighter and emergency medical technician in New York and Virginia. Since then, he has responded to incidents of every level around the world. Significant incidents include the Northeast Power Outage in 2003, Station Fire in 2009 (California), Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010 (Gulf Coast), and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in 2012 (Japan). As part of the U.S. government response to the Fukushima Daiichi incident, Mr. Haley earned awards including the DOE Secretarial Honor Award and the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development Meritorious Award. Following his experience at the Deepwater Horizon and Fukushima Daiichi incidents, Mr. Haley authored a paper on the complexities of both incidents, compared to domestic nuclear or radiological incidents. He has also lectured on the topic to a wide range of audiences including the National Radiological Emergency Preparedness Conference and the Health Physics Society, as well as government senior leaders.

Mr. Haley holds a Masters of Public Policy from George Mason University and a Bachelors of Arts (dual majors of Public Policy and Economics) from Hamilton College. He is a certified NFPA Fire Instructor II, NIMS/ICS instructor, and a HSEEP instructor, with advanced training and experience in instructional design and training delivery. He also holds ICS qualifications as a Resources Unit Leader and Situation Unit Leader. Recognized as a subject matter expert on radiological incidents and complex incident management, he is a frequent presenter and contributor on incident management topics.

William Haley, Consultant
Smith J

James M. Smith

Smith J

is a consulting physicist and an adjunct professor at Emory University’s Rollins School of Public Health. He began his career as a research physicist at the former RCA Space Center in Princeton, New Jersey, and later became associate research professor at the University of Utah School of Medicine. He was founding chief of the Radiation Studies Branch at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), where he also held a Distinguished Scientist appointment. In 1994 he received the U.S. Public Health Service Superior Service Award for establishing CDC as major international focus for radiation studies.

Dr. Smith has consulted on nuclear threat countermeasures for the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the G-7 Global Health Security Action Group. He traveled extensively advising public health officials and nongovernmental organizations in the aftermath of Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear crises. Currently, he is staff consultant to NCRP’s Scientific Committee on Emergency Responder Dosimetry. He received his MS in theoretical physics and PhD in experimental physics from West Virginia University and completed his post-doctoral research at Florida State University’s Institute of Molecular Biophysics.

James M. Smith, Staff Consultant


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Last modified: June 28, 2017