NCRP is coordinating an expansive epidemiologic effort entitled the One Million U.S. Persons Study of Low Dose Radiation Health Effects (Million Person Study) (MPS). The primary aim of the MPS is to provide scientifically valid information and improve precision on the level of radiation risk when exposures are received gradually over time, and not acutely as was the case for Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. The major health outcome of interest for the MPS is cancer mortality, but other causes of death such as cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be evaluated.
The validity of the MPS is tied to the validity of the dose reconstruction approaches to provide accurate estimates of organ doses (i.e., the absorbed dose averaged over all parts of an organ or tissue) and their accompanying uncertainties. To date, the derivation of the annual organ doses and their associated uncertainties from the available recorded dose quantities and other information has been performed for part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) workers, is well under way for the atomic veterans, has been undertaken for the nuclear power plant workers and the industrial radiographers, and is at the planning stage for the medical radiation workers.
Organ doses from exposure to all the relevant external and internal sources for a given population are of interest. For most of the MPS cohorts, external sources were the predominant mode of exposure. However, for the DOE workers, preliminary estimates indicate that about half of the DOE workers also were exposed from intakes of radionuclides. Following a presentation of the status of the cohorts involved in the MPS and of the available recorded dose quantities, the recommended guidelines regarding the estimation of annual organ doses and their uncertainties for the purposes of an epidemiologic study are presented and discussed.
Provide guidance in the derivation of organ doses and their associated uncertainty for epidemiologic studies in general, but with a focus on the populations that make up the MPS coordinated by NCRP. The study populations include DOE workers, atomic veterans, nuclear power plant workers, medical radiation workers, and industrial radiographers.
- February 17-18, 2016 … seventh meeting of the full committee (at ORAU) List of potential expert reviewers reviewed and expanded
- June 8, 2016 … Draft distributed for PAC 6/expert review
- August 19, 2016 (teleconference) … discussed review comments on uncertainty approaches in draft; reached consensus on adding text to accommodate the comments
- November 1, 2016 …distribution of draft for Council review and approval (6-week review period) (comment deadline December 13, 2016)
Planned schedule for completing PAC 6/expert review draft
- April 2-3, 2013: First meeting of full committee [at Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU)] Presentations on various ongoing activities related to the MPS
- June 19, 2013 (webinar): Preliminary discussions of each section’s content
- September 15, 2013: First draft of consolidated input sent to members
- October 1-2, 2013: Second meeting of full committee (at ORAU) Review draft and schedule of next steps
- April 1, 2014: Revised consolidated draft distributed to members
- April 29-30, 2014: Third meeting of full committee (at ORAU) Section-by-section review
- July 28, 2014 (teleconference): Review progress on writing assignments
- October 28-29, 2014: Fourth meeting of full committee Review of consolidated draft (dated October 17)
- January 22, 2015 (webinar): Adjustments to the presentation and discussion of uncertainties
- February 17, 2015 (teleconference): Agreement on reworks needed on sections and appendices that discuss the uncertainties in organ dose
- April 28-29, 2015: Fifth meeting of full committee (at ORAU) Review of revised draft (dated April 12)
- November 3-4, 2015: Sixth meeting of the full committee (at ORAU) Section-by section review of current draft (dated October 25)
Review of draft outline
Made assignments for revised sections
Significant adjustments to outline to bring all the main principles and guidance on derivation of organ doses and their uncertainties into one location
Two presentations on treatment of uncertainties in derivation of organ dose, and one on the unique composition of the radiation environment in space
Detailed discussions on nuclear power plant workers and medical radiation workers: Two MPS cohorts that have many challenges in deriving organ doses from available personal monitoring records and other work-related information when the specific exposure conditions for individuals are not directly known.
Generated a list of potential expert reviewers
Generated a provisional timetable to produce the PAC 6/expert review draft
First quarter 2017: Publication of final report
- Federal agencies:
- National laboratory collaborators:
- Academic/research institutions:
- Private-sector collaborators:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
National Cancer Institute
U.S. Department of Defense / Defense Threat Reduction Agency
U.S. Department of Energy
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
was born and educated in France. He came to the United States in 1984 to work for the National Cancer Institute (NCI). His initial assignment was to estimate the thyroid doses received by the American people from 131I released by the nuclear weapons tests that were conducted at the Nevada Test Site in the 1950s. This study led to the assessment of doses from nuclear weapons tests conducted at other sites all over the world, as well as to a large number of dosimetry studies related to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. He was the head of the Dosimetry Unit of the Radiation Epidemiology Branch at NCI until he retired at the end of 2010. Throughout his career, Dr. Bouville actively participated in the preparation of scientific reports under the umbrella of international organizations, notably the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, the World Health Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Nuclear Energy Agency.
Regarding U.S. organizations, Dr. Bouville was a member of NCRP for 12 y, became a Distinguished Emeritus Member in 2011, and is currently Chair of Scientific Committee 6-9 on the dosimetry for the Million-Worker Study. He has served on numerous National Academy of Science committees, is a Lifetime Associate of the National Academies, and is currently a member of the Committee on the analysis of cancer risks in populations near nuclear facilities. For all his achievements, Dr. Bouville was a recipient of the Presidential Rank Meritorial Award in 2003.
RICHARD E. TOOHEY
received his PhD in physics from the University of Cincinnati in 1973. He spent the first part of his career at Argonne National Laboratory in both research and operational health physics. He recently retired from Oak Ridge Associated Universities, where he served as director of the Radiation Internal Dose Information Center, as Senior Health Physicist for the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site, Director of Dose Reconstruction Programs, and Associate Director of the Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program. He is currenly employed by M.H. Chew and Associates.
He is certified in comprehensive practice by the American Board of Health Physics, was the 2008 to 2009 President of the Health Physics Society, is a member and director of NCRP, Treasurer of the International Radiation Protection Association, and Chair of the Scientific Advisory Committee for the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries. His specialties are internal radiation dosimetry, dose reconstruction, and radiological emergency response. Dr. Toohey has 125 publications in the open literature, and is a retired Lt. Colonel, U.S. Army Reserve.
HAROLD L. BECK
was a physicist for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/ERDA/Atomic Energy Commission for over 36 y. Mr. Beck retired in 1999 as the Director of the Environmental Science Division of the DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in New York City and is presently a self-employed consultant specializing in environmental radiation dose reconstructions. During his tenure at EML, he also served as Director of the EML Instrumentation Division, and as Acting Deputy Director of the Laboratory. Mr. Beck has authored well over 100 publications in the areas of radiation physics, radiation measurement, dose reconstruction, environmental radiation, and radiation dosimetry. He served as Scientific Vice President for Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry of NCRP from 1996 to 2003, and in 2004 was elected to Distinguished Emeritus membership in NCRP. From 2004 to 2006, he served as a member of the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council (NAS/NRC) Board on Radiation Effects Research /Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board.
He currently serves as a member of the Veterans (federal advisory) Board on Dose Reconstruction and the U.S. Scientific Review Group, DOE Russian Health Studies Program. He has served as an expert member on a number of NCRP and NAS/NRC scientific studies related to radiation dosimetry and as Chair of two NCRP committees and one NCRP Program Committee. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Nuclear Society, and a Fellow of the Health Physics Society.
LAWRENCE T. DAUER
is Associate Attending Physicist, and Associate Clinical Member in the Departments of Medical Physics and Radiology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in New York City. He earned an MS in Health Physics and a PhD in Adult Education. He is certified in comprehensive health physics by the American Board of Health Physics and is past chair of the Radiation Safety Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), past President of the Greater New York Chapter of the Health Physics Society (HPS), Executive Council Member of the Medical Physics Section of the HPS, a Member of the Joint Safety Committee of the Society for Interventional Radiology and the American College of Radiology, past council member of the Radiological and Medical Physics chapter of the AAPM, and a member of editorial and review boards of several scientific journals. He serves as the Chair of the MSKCC Emergency Management Committee, a member of the Radiation Injury Treatment Network. In 2005, he received the Elda E. Anderson Award from HPS. He is a Council member and serves on he Board of Directors of the NCRP. He also serves as a member of the International Commission on Radiological Protection Committee 3 on protection in medicine, a member of the science council for the International Organization for Medical Physics, and was on the program committee for the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine-Setting the Scene for the Next Decade. He serves on the Radiation Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board. He has several publications in the topical areas of radiation protection and risks in the fields of detection, radiology, interventional radiology, x-ray imaging, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology, as well as surgery and medicine.
KEITH F. ECKERMAN
in Radiological Physics from Northwestern University in 1972. Dr. Eckerman joined the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1979 as leader of the Dosimetry Research Group after working at Argonne National Laboratory and with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. He is a member of Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and Chairman of its Task Group on Dose Calculations. In 1999 he received the Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award from the Health Physics Society and in 2001 the Loevinger-Berman Award from the Society of Nuclear Medicine.
DONALD L. MILLER
is Chief Medical Officer for Radiological Health at the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health. He earned a BA from Yale University and an MD from New York University, and completed a residency in diagnostic radiology and a fellowship in interventional radiology at New York University Medical Center. He is board certified in Diagnostic Radiology and Vascular and Interventional Radiology. Prior to joining FDA, he practiced interventional radiology at the National Institutes of Health and the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.
Dr. Miller was elected to NCRP in 2006. He currently serves as Co-Chair of Program Area Committee 4 (Radiation Protection in Medicine), Chair of the Nominating Committee, and as a member of several scientific committees. He is an author of NCRP Reports No. 168 and No. 172 and Statement No. 11. He also served as a member of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Committee 3 (Protection in Medicine) from 2010 to 2017. He is an author of ICRP Publications 117 and 120. He was Vice-Chair for the U.S. Environmental Protection Administration’s Federal Guidance Report No. 14, is a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency, and is a member of the World Health Organization’s Core Group of Experts on radiation protection of patients and staff.
Dr. Miller was Professor of Radiology at the Uniformed Services University in Bethesda, Maryland from 1993 to 2012 and has served as Associate Editor of Radiology and the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. He is an author of more than 185 papers in peer-reviewed journals and more than 30 book chapters and reports, is a Fellow of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) and is an Honorary Member of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. He chaired SIR’s Safety and Health Committee from 1999 to 2011 and the ACR Guidelines Interventional Committee from 2008 to 2012. His research interests have centered on radiation protection in medicine.
BRUCE A. NAPIER
is a Staff Scientist in the Radiological Science and Engineering Group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington and has been for the past 35 y. Mr. Napier works with the development and operation of models concerned with the environmental transport of radiological and chemical contaminants. His expertise and experience lie in the areas of radiation dose reconstruction, computer modeling, environmental analysis, and human health risk analysis.
He is an author of the widely-used GENII computer code. Mr. Napier was the Chief Scientist for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project that evaluated releases from the Hanford Site during production of plutonium. He is now a Principal Investigator for the U.S./Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, working on the dose reconstructions at the Russian Mayak Production Association for both the workers at and the populations living near the points of atmospheric release and along the Techa River downstream. Mr. Napier is a member of the Board of Directors of NCRP, a committee member of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board and the National Academy of Sciences, a Fellow of the Health Physics Society, and Chair of oversight panels for the National Cancer Institute's Chernobyl Studies.
KATHRYN H. PRYOR
has been a member of Program Area Committee (PAC) 2 since 2007 and a member of NCRP since 2010. She has served on Scientific Committees 2-4, 2-5, 2-7, 1-19, and 6-9. Ms. Pryor is currently on the NCRP Board of Directors and is Scientific Vice President of PAC 2. She received her BS in Biology in 1979 and MS in Radiological Sciences in 1981, both from the University of Washington.
Ms. Pryor currently holds the position of Chief Health Physicist at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, and has provided management and technical support to the PNNL Radiation Protection Division since 1992. She also served as the Chief Radiological Engineer for the design of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Project. Ms. Pryor has previously held radiation protection technical support positions at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and the Trojan Nuclear Plant, and was the Radiation Safety Officer at the University of Southern California Health Sciences Campus.
Ms. Pryor is a Fellow member of the Health Physics Society (HPS) and served as President-Elect, President, and Past President from 2010 to 2013. She is certified in comprehensive practice by the American Board of Health Physics (ABHP), and served on the ABHP both as a member and Chair from 1998 to 2002. Ms. Pryor was awarded the William McAdams Outstanding Service Award by ABHP in 2007 and the John P. Corley Meritorious Service Award by the Columbia Chapter of HPS in 2003.
DAVID A. SCHAUER
is Adjunct Associate Professor at Georgetown University and the University of Nevada Las Vegas. From 1984 to 2004, Dr. Schauer served in various scientific and leadership positions as an officer in the U.S. Navy. One of the highlights of his career was serving on the faculty of the Radiology and Radiological Sciences Department at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. In 2004, he was appointed Executive Director of the congressionally chartered NCRP. He served in this position until 2012 when he was named Executive Director Emeritus. During his time at NCRP the Council published 27 reports, four commentaries, one statement, and eight annual meeting proceedings.
Dr. Schauer received his ScD degree from Johns Hopkins University and he's a diplomate of the American Board of Health Physics. He sits on the editorial boards of Radiation Measurements and Radiation Protection Dosimetry. He has served on expert committees for the World Health Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency, and he's a Health Physics Program Evaluator for the Accreditation Board on Engineering and Technology.
DANIEL O. STRAM
is Professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California. He received his PhD in statistics from Temple University in 1983 and served as a postdoctoral fellow in the Biostatistics Department of the Harvard School of Public Health from 1984 to 1986. From 1986 to 1989 he was a research associate at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan.
Dr. Stram's main areas of research are in the statistical problems that arise in the design, analysis and interpretation of epidemiological studies of cancer and other diseases. His work on radiation epidemiology studies includes: (1) helping to characterize the statistical nature of errors in dose estimates for the atomic-bomb survivor study, (2) developing a multi-level variance components model for the dosimetry used in the Colorado Plateau uranium miners cohort for the purpose of better understanding dose and dose-rate effects in those data, and (3) characterizing study power and sample size issues in epidemiologic studies in which a complex dosimetry system is used to estimate radiation dose. Besides the field of radiation epidemiology his past and current research has focused on statistical issues relevant to clinical trials of treatment for pediatric cancer, nutritional epidemiology studies, and to studies of the genetics of complex diseases. He is an elected fellow of the American Statistical Association and has authored or co-authored over 200 peer reviewed articles.
James L. Thompson
served in the U.S. Navy from 1989 until 1994 as a nuclear propulsion plant operator, during which time he received the Southwest Asia Service Medal while stationed onboard the USS Abraham Lincoln. He received a BS in Biology and Chemistry in 1998 from Stephen F. Austin State University. Upon graduation, he became a health physicist working as a radioactive materials inspector for the Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control. His primary focus during this time was on the routine inspections of industrial licensees, as well as investigations into radiation overexposures and other events resulting from the use of industrial sources of radiation. In 2001, he became a health physics inspector with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), where he was promoted to Senior Health Physicist. During his time at NRC, Mr. Thompson participated in numerous investigations into radiation exposure events and radioactive contamination events, most notably the plutonium contamination event at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado in 2008. Another incident investigation that he performed was at the Basin Electric Power Cooperative in Wheatland, Wyoming, whereby 17 employees were inadvertently exposed to radiation from the misuse of fixed nuclear gauges. Mr. Thompson has served as an instructor for the NRC’s Inspection Procedures course, teaching the principles of industrial uses of nuclear material and associated inspection techniques. Also, he was a finalist for the Leadership Excellence Award at the Dallas-Fort Worth Federal Executive Board awards banquet in June 2012.
JOHN E. TILL
is President of Risk Assessment Corporation. He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy and served in the U.S. Navy Nuclear Submarine Program and retired a Rear Admiral in the U.S. Naval Reserve in 1999. Dr. Till received an MS from Colorado State University in 1972 and a PhD from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1976. In 1977 Dr. Till formed Risk Assessment Corporation to perform research on radionuclides released to the environment by nuclear facilities. His career has focused on the development of methods to estimate dose and risk to humans from radionuclides and chemicals in the environment. He has served on committees for the National Academy of Sciences, the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. He has published widely in the open literature including the first textbook on radiological risk assessment published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1983 and an updated version, Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis (2008).
In 1995, Dr. Till received the E.O. Lawrence Award from the U.S. Department of Energy in the field of Environmental Science and Technology. In addition to his scientific work, Dr. Till also owns and operates his family farm, growing corn and soybeans near Neeses, South Carolina.
R. CRAIG YODER
has directed Landauer's technical activities relating to radiation dosimetry, particularly for applications in radiation protection, since joining Landauer in 1983. Additionally, he oversees subsidiary and partner businesses located in Australia, Brazil, China, France, Mexico, Japan, Sweden and Turkey.
An internationally known expert in radiation monitoring, Dr. Yoder led Landauer's transition from film and thermoluminescent dosimetry technology to optically stimulated luminescence, an assignment that required strategic planning and direction in areas spanning scientific research, product development, manufacturing, laboratory operations and marketing. From 1993 to 2001, he was Vice President of Operations and managed Landauer's manufacturing and analytical laboratory activities in addition to overseeing research and development programs.
Dr. Yoder is a member of NCRP and former President of the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards. He has served on several national and international committees to develop dosimetry standards. He was a member of a National Research Council committee that examined the accuracy of film badge measurements made during atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. He currently heads the Advisory Committee for the School of Health Sciences at Purdue University.
Dr. Yoder earned his MS and PhD degrees in Bionucleonics at Purdue University and received a BS in Pre-Medicine from Davidson College. He also completed the Executive Program at Stanford University. He is Certified in Comprehensive Health Physics by the American Board of Health Physics.
is a Principal Science in the Space Science Division of Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), headquartered in San Antonio, Texas. Dr. Zeitlin has been at SwRI since 2008, working on the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) aboard the Curiosity Mars rover and a newer version of RAD for the International Space Station. Dr. Zeitlin received his BS from the University of California Berkeley in 1981 and his PhD in experimental high-energy particle physics from University of California Davis in 1988. His PhD research and postdoctoral work were done at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), where he studied two-photon interactions and decays of the Z boson.
Dr. Zeitlin moved from SLAC to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991 to join an experimental nuclear physics group working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to make ground-based measurements relevant to the transport of cosmic radiation through shielding materials and tissue. This began an association with NASA's programs in space radiation physics and biology that continues to the present. Dr. Zeitlin's current research interests are in the analysis of flight data returned from RAD and other space-borne detectors, as well as the development of improved compact spectrometers and dosimeters for spaceflight.
|Stephen Balter, Consultant|
Terry A. Brock
is a senior health physicist with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), where he has worked for 11 y. He is the current NRC program manager for the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System, the Analysis of Cancer Risks in Populations near Nuclear Facilities study, and the lead for the agency's participation in the One Million U.S. Radiation Workers and Veterans Heath Study. He is a current management board member and past Vice Chair of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development / Nuclear Energy Agency 's Information System on Occupational Exposure. He's the agency liaison with NCRP and the International Commission on Radiological Protection and serves as the NRC representative on the Executive Committee of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (Russian Health Studies). He has served as the project manager for the State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses study and on the Risk Task Group that explored risk-informing the radioactive materials arena. Before NRC, he worked in health physics at a commercial nuclear power facility and at two universities. In addition to health physics, Dr. Brock has worked on environmental health and risk communication issues related to pesticides and hazardous substance clean-up sites. Dr. Brock holds a PhD in public health and MS in radiation heath physics and environmental health from Oregon State University. He holds a BS in health physics and industrial hygiene from Purdue University.
is a research scientist in the Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). He received his PhD in mathematics from the University of Kentucky in 1972 and taught mathematics at the Ruhr University in Bochum, Germany, and the University of Tennessee before joining the Health Physics Division at ORNL in 1976. His main research interest is in physiological systems modeling, with primary applications to the biokinetics and dosimetry of radionuclides and radiation risk analysis. He is a member of Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the ICRP Task Group on Internal Dosimetry. His physiological systems models of the human circulation, skeleton, and gastrointestinal transfer and his systemic biokinetic models for a number of elements are used by ICRP as dosimetry and bioassay models. He is the author of ICRP Publication 70, Basic Anatomical and Physiological Data for Use in Radiological Protection: The Skeleton and co-author of a number of other ICRP reports including the series of documents on doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides (1989 to 1996), the updated Reference Man document (2002), and the Human Alimentary Tract Model (2006). He has authored over 100 open literature publications and in 1995 was named ORNL Author of the Year for the paper, “An Age-Specific Kinetic Model of Pb Metabolism in Humans.”
is a consultant, currently concentrating on the preparation of scientific reports produced by NCRP in all subject areas. From 1982 to 1995, he was Director, Office of Health Physics at the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He also served in a number of scientific and management positions related to radiation protection during his 33 y career as a Commissioned Officer in the U.S. Public Health Service, from 1962 to 1995. He received a BS in Chemical Engineering (University of Maryland, 1961), an MS in Environmental Engineering (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1966) and a PhD in Nuclear Engineering (University of Maryland, 1971). His technical work has concentrated on radiation dosimetry, particularly with regard to x rays used for medical diagnosis, epidemiological studies of exposed populations, and public radiation emergencies.
He is a Distinguished Emeritus Member of NCRP (after serving as a Council member for 18 y), and an Emeritus member of Committee 3 (Protection in Medicine) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection [after serving on Committee 3 for 28 y (1985 to 2013)]. He was also a member of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report committee that produced Report 74, Patient Dosimetry for X Rays Used in Medical Imaging.