SC 5-2: Radiation Protection for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technologically Enhanced NORM (TENORM) from Oil and Gas Recovery


NCRP SC5-2 was established in 2015 to address “Radiation Protection for Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technologically-Enhanced NORM (TENORM)” for oil and gas recovery. Because no funding was available for the project at that time, it operated cautiously, relying on opportunistic meetings and “in kind” support from contributing organizations.

Given the early establishment of this SC, the framework was in place for formal activities to begin quickly after funding was received. SC5-2 is chaired by William Kennedy, Jr., with staff consultant John Frazier, and seven other members (shown above), including representatives from state and federal protection agencies, and private industry concerned with TENORM and issues of radiation in the environment (see for a full list of and biographical information on committee members).


The Committee will prepare a commentary that provides a literature review of NORM and TENORM radiation protection issues in oil and gas recovery, identify gaps in knowledge, and make recommendations for a more comprehensive guidance document/report. Potential topics that may be included in the guidance report include:

  • standardized radiation exposure scenarios useful for estimating individual radiation doses for potentially exposed individuals;
  • standardized radiation monitoring protocols for monitoring oil and gas recovery facilities and individual workers; and
  • recommendations with regard to issues of radiation protection to fill the gaps in guidance that currently exist.


NCRP SC 5-2 sponsored a workshop entitled “TENORM in Unconventional Oil and Gas Production” in conjunction with the Health Physics Society Midyear Meeting on February 1, 2015.


The final draft was submitted to the NCRP secretariat for final editing and desktop publishing in December 2019


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention





has extensive experience as a project manager, task leader, and individual contributor covering a broad range of health physics and nuclear engineering topics. He received his BS and MS degrees in Nuclear Engineering from Kansas State University. Mr. Kennedy has been involved in the development of environmental pathway and radiation dosimetry models used to assess potential health and environmental impacts that resulted from releases of radionuclides to the environment.

He specializes in the use of these models in environmental dose reconstruction, radioactive materials transport, radioactive waste disposal, and evaluation of nuclear facility operating practices. Over the past 37 y, Mr. Kennedy has led and contributed to a variety of projects for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and private industry. He has been involved with development of the technical basis for revised standards and regulations, and serves as the chair of ANSI/HPS N13.12, Surface and volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance. He served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria, and was a member of the IAEA Advisory Groups to evaluate the Derivation of Exempt Quantities for Application to Terrestrial Waste Disposal and Derivation of Exempt Quantities for Recycle of Materials from Nuclear Facilities.

He was an invited lecturer for IAEA training courses on Management of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Power Plants at Argonne National Laboratory; on Safety Assessment Modeling for Low and Intermediate Radwastes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in Cairo, Egypt; and on Environmental Monitoring in Kiev, Ukraine. In 1990, he received the Health Physics Society's (HPS) prestigious Elda E. Anderson Award. He served as a member of the HPS Board of Directors from 1998 through 2001 and was selected as a fellow of the society in 2002. He was a member of the U.S. delegation to the 10th Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association in Hiroshima, Japan.

william e. kennedy, jr. , Chair
David J. Allard

David J. Allard


David J. Allard is the Director of Pennsylvania's Department of Environment Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection; responsible for the accelerator, x ray, environmental surveillance, nuclear safety, radiological emergency response, radioactive materials, decommissioning / site cleanup, low-level waste, and radon programs within the Commonwealth. He is the Governor's official liaison to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and a Commissioner for the Appalachian States Low-level Radioactive Waste Compact Commission.

Mr. Allard received a BS in Environmental Sciences from the State University of New York –Albany and an MS in Radiological Sciences and Protection from the University of Massachusetts – Lowell. He is certified by the American Board of Health Physics and a Fellow of the Health Physics Society.

Prior to joining DEP in February 1999, he was a consultant to the U.S. Department of Energy on environmental and occupational radiation protection for 8 y. Mr. Allard has been involved in various aspects of governmental, industrial, reactor, medical and academic radiation protection for 36 y. He serves as a member or advisor on several national radiation protection committees, has authored numerous professional papers and reports, and lectures frequently on a wide variety of radiation protection topics and concerns.

David J. Allard
M. Barrie

Martin D. Barrie

is an occupational/environmental epidemiologist, health scientist, and lawyer with over 35 y of training and experience in the integrated disciplines of epidemiology, exposure assessment, industrial hygiene, health toxicology, and law. His formal education includes both PhD (Community Health Sciences, Epidemiology) and MS (Industrial Hygiene, Genetic Toxicology) degrees from the University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health, and a JD from South Texas College of Law.

Dr. Barrie has practiced as an occupational/industrial hygienist for international oil and gas companies and consultancies and has assessed and characterized occupational and environmental exposures in numerous environments and communities. As an epidemiologist, he has regularly been called upon to investigate, evaluate and characterize the strengths of association between exposures to various toxicants and various disease outcomes. He has practiced law in federal and state courts and is licensed by the Texas and Tennessee Supreme Courts. Dr. Barrie holds adjunct academic appointments with the University of Texas, School of Public Health, and the University of Tennessee’s College of Nursing and Department of Public Health.

Martin D. Barrie
P. Egidi

Philip V. Egidi

is an Environmental Scientist/Health Physicist in the Radiation Protection Division in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Washington, D.C. headquarters. Mr. Egidi has over 30 y experience in radiation safety and environmental protection. He joined EPA in late 2011. His focus is on radioactivity in industrial wastes, uranium recovery, radon, risk assessment, and radiation regulation. Previously, he spent 11 y with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE). He was CDPHE project manager for licensing the first conventional uranium mill in the United States in over 25 y. He was a principle author of the CDPHE Policy and Guidance on Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM), and oversaw regulation of operation and decommissioning of the Cotter Uranium Mill and the final closure of the URAVAN Superfund Site. Prior to that Mr. Egidi spent another 11 y with Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education /Oak Ridge Associated Universities working on uranium mill tailings and U.S. Department of Energy decommissioning projects. He started his radiological career in 1983 when he worked as a contract employee on some of the earliest remediation projects in Monticello, Utah and Grand Junction, Colorado. Over the years, he has been on numerous committees relative to NORM/TENORM, including Health Physics Society/ American National Standards Institute N13.53, Control and Release of TENORM, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 142 on harmonizing the ICRP Principles in NORM Industries, and the Council of Radiation Control Program Directors E-42. He is active in the Health Physics Society and was the author of the website. Mr. Egidi has an Associates of Applied Science in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management from Mesa State College (2000).

Philip V. Egidi
G. Forsee

Gary Forsee

is a Health Physicist with the Illinois Emergency Management Agency's Radioactive Materials Program. In his tenure with the State of Illinois, he has worked in areas of environmental monitoring, site decommissioning, low-level radioactive waste, radiological emergency response, radioactive materials transportation and security, nuclear safety, as well as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) regulatory program development and implementation. In his current capacity, he manages the inspection and enforcement of radioactive material licensees and oversees radiological emergency response operations. Since 2012, he has chaired the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD)'s Part N committee, revising draft regulations for the licensure of TENORM. He is a contributing author to various TENORM publications and often a guest speaker at industry and stakeholder forums concerning worker protection, waste handling, and regulatory approaches for TENORM. He has worked on public dose assessment and regulatory issues concerning TENORM in drinking water and resulting wastes since 2004; developing guidance, implementing regulatory programs, and employing modeling software to support regulatory decision making.

He served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, on the development of regulatory frameworks for TENORM and continues to participate in regulatory forums internationally to refine NORM guidance.

Gary Forsee
Johnson R

Raymond H. Johnson

is a 55 y career radiation safety specialist and currently Director of the Radiation Safety Counseling Institute where he specializes in consulting, training, worker counseling, and risk communication on radiation issues including naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). He previously directed the Radiation Safety Academy where he trained over 3,500 Radiation Safety Officers. He started his consulting practice in 1985 after retiring his commission (O-6) in the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) with 29 y of service. While with the PHS he was assigned to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) where he served as Chief of the Radiation Surveillance Branch for 15 y. During that time, he wrote an extensive report on health effects from radon in natural gas. He also wrote EPA’s first report on the U.S. population health risks from radon exposures in homes. In 1986 Mr. Johnson was a charter member and now honorary life member of the American Association of Radon Scientists and Technologists and served as President from 1995 to 1998. He was also a Founder and President of the Health Physics Society’s (HPS) Radon Section in 1995 to 1996. He was the Founder and first President of the National Radon Safety Board in 1997 to 1999. He was also the Director and Quality Control Manager of a radon measurements laboratory from 1986 to 2005. He taught radon measurement classes at Rutgers University from 1991 to 1998.

Mr. Johnson is a past President of HPS and served on the Executive Committee as Secretary, Treasurer, and President from 1992 to 2001. He was selected for the HPS Founders Award and honorary life membership in 2016. He is a Past President, Treasurer, and Diplomate of the American Academy of Health Physics as a Certified Health Physicist since 1983. He is a past Chair of the Ionizing Radiation Committee of American Industrial Hygiene Association. He has received over 35 awards for professional services. He has served as an expert witness on several lawsuits involving radon and radium and has provided consulting and training services on NORM issues to many universities and companies across the United States and Canada. Mr. Johnson has graduate degrees from MIT and Harvard and has over 600 publications and presentations on radiation safety, measurements, NORM, and risk communication.

Raymond H. Johnson
Andrew J. Lombardo

Andrew J. Lombardo


Andrew J. Lombardo has over 30 years of experience in radiation protection/health physics and the management of radioactive material sites including radiological engineering, hazardous and radiological waste characterization, project management, decontamination and decommissioning, and environmental remediation. Mr. Lombardo currently serves as the Senior Vice President and Manager of Nuclear Services for Perma-Fix. Mr. Lombardo is an industry expert in radioactive material assessment and the characterization and management of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM).

He received a BS in Natural Sciences in 1981 from Indiana University of Pennsylvania; an MS in Health Physics from the University of Pittsburgh in 1994; and is Certified in the Practice of Comprehensive Health Physics by the American Board of Health Physics since 1994.

Andrew J. Lombardo



is the Executive Director of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors. In that position, she manages and directs the administrative office for the organization. Prior to taking that position in January 2007, she was the Manager of the Radiation Safety Licensing Branch at the Texas Department of State Health Services, culminating 25 y of service in the Texas Radiation Control Program, most of which involved licensing and standards development.

Ms. McBurney has served on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Advisory Committee on the Medical Use of Isotopes and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's National Mammography Quality Assurance Advisory Committee. She is currently serving as a Member of NCRP, and is also on the Board of Directors. She served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency in the categorization of radiation sources and recently served on a committee of the National Academy of Science regarding replacement technologies for high-risk radiation sources. She has also been a U.S. delegate to the International Radiation Protection Association's 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th Congresses.

Ms. McBurney holds a BS in Biology from Henderson State University in Arkansas and an MS in Radiation Sciences from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. She is also certified in comprehensive health physics by the American Board of Health Physics.

Ruth E. McBurney

Kathleen L. Shingleton


is retired from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where she was employed for more than 38 y in a variety of positions in the Radiation Safety Program. Throughout her career she was involved with the Health Physics Society (HPS), serving as Treasurer, a Director, and Venues Committee Chair; the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP), serving as the President and Secretary; the American Board of Health Physics, serving on both the Part I and Part II exam panels; and the Northern California Chapter of the HPS where she held numerous positions. In 2007 she was selected as a Fellow of HPS. In 2017 she became a member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and currently serves on the Finance Committee and Program Area Committee 2. She has a BS degree from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, a Master’s Degree in Health Physics from San Jose State University, and is comprehensively Certified by the ABHP.

Kathleen L. Shingleton , Staff Consultant
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Last modified: January 29, 2016