As part of the One Million Person Study of Radiation Workers and Veterans, being coordinated by NCRP, 173,000 medical radiation workers have been identified and are currently being evaluated. The approach to the complex dosimetry circumstances for medical radiation workers over three to four decades of occupation have been described in NCRP Report No. 178 (2018), but many of the specific approaches for medical radiation workers could not be included in NCRP Report No. 178. These specific approaches will be covered in this commentary, with emphasis on estimating lung dose. The approaches will rely on various exposure scenarios for medical workers classified as radiology, nuclear medicine, fluoroscopy-guided interventional, and radiation oncology. Various approaches to estimate lung cancer dose will be developed, including energy dependence, orientation, calendar year, and other features as available within the Landauer dosimetry database. The results of the commentary are important to address the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s need to define sex-specific lung cancer risks for their assessments of radiation limits currently in place for female astronauts.
Specifically, the Committee will comprehensively review all the material available within the personal dosimetry records of Landauer, Inc. from which the population was identified. Identification of specific occupations, calendar years of work, sex, apron use, energy of incident radiation, and more, can be estimated with high quality. To make this quality as high as possible, the Committee will evaluate these records and then contrast them with available records in medical facilities such as in Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and possibly others such as the Mayo Clinic where there are overlapping records from the dosimetry system to the actual medical records in the hospitals.
To prepare a commentary that describes the optimum approaches for estimating lung dose within an epidemiologic study of medical radiation workers, 1960 to 1994.
R. CRAIG YODER
directed Landauer's technical activities relating to radiation dosimetry, particularly for applications in radiation protection from 1983 through his retirement in 2015. Additionally, he oversaw subsidiary and partner businesses located in Australia, Brazil, China, France, Mexico, Japan, Sweden and Turkey.
An internationally known expert in radiation monitoring, Dr. Yoder led Landauer's transition from film and thermoluminescent dosimetry technology to optically stimulated luminescence, an assignment that required strategic planning and direction in areas spanning scientific research, product development, manufacturing, laboratory operations and marketing. From 1993 to 2001, he was Vice President of Operations and managed Landauer's manufacturing and analytical laboratory activities in addition to overseeing research and development programs.
Dr. Yoder is a member of NCRP and former President of the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards. He has served on several national and international committees to develop dosimetry standards. He was a member of a National Research Council committee that examined the accuracy of film badge measurements made during atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.
Dr. Yoder earned his MS and PhD degrees in Bionucleonics at Purdue University and received a BS in Pre-Medicine from Davidson College. He also completed the Executive Program at Stanford University. He is Certified in Comprehensive Health Physics by the American Board of Health Physics.
LAWRENCE T. DAUER
is Associate Attending Physicist, and Associate Clinical Member in the Departments of Medical Physics and Radiology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in New York City. He earned an MS in Health Physics and a PhD in Adult Education. He is certified in comprehensive health physics by the American Board of Health Physics and is past chair of the Radiation Safety Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), past President of the Greater New York Chapter of the Health Physics Society (HPS), Executive Council Member of the Medical Physics Section of the HPS, a Member of the Joint Safety Committee of the Society for Interventional Radiology and the American College of Radiology, past council member of the Radiological and Medical Physics chapter of the AAPM, and a member of editorial and review boards of several scientific journals. He serves as the Chair of the MSKCC Emergency Management Committee, a member of the Radiation Injury Treatment Network. In 2005, he received the Elda E. Anderson Award from HPS. He is a Council member and serves on he Board of Directors of the NCRP. He also serves as a member of the International Commission on Radiological Protection Committee 3 on protection in medicine, a member of the science council for the International Organization for Medical Physics, and was on the program committee for the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine-Setting the Scene for the Next Decade. He serves on the Radiation Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board. He has several publications in the topical areas of radiation protection and risks in the fields of detection, radiology, interventional radiology, x-ray imaging, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology, as well as surgery and medicine.
is a Clinical Professor of Radiology and Medicine at Columbia University. He earned an MS in Radiological Physics and a PhD in Experimental Physics. He is certified in Radiological Physics by the American Board of Radiology and licensed by New York State in Diagnostic Imaging, Radiation Therapy Physics, and Medical Health Physics. He is a past President of the Radiological and Medical Physics Society of New York, past Vice President of the Radiological Society of North America, a member of the Standards and Safety Committees of the Society for Interventional Radiology, and a member of editorial and review boards of several scientific journals. He received the Marvin M.D. Williams award from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) in 2017. He is a fellow of AAPM, the American College of Medical Physics, the American College of Radiology, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society of Interventional Radiology. He currently serves on International Electrotechnical Commission working groups responsible for safety and performance standards for projection and interventional radiology. He has been a member of NCRP Council for more than a decade. He chaired scientific committees that produced NCRP Report No. 168, Radiation Dose Management for Fluoroscopically-Guided Interventional Medical Procedures and NCRP Statement No. 11, Outline of Administrative Policies for Quality Assurance and Peer Review of Tissue Reactions Associated with Fluoroscopically-Guided Interventions (2014). He has over 100 refereed publications in the areas of radiological imaging, radiological health, and related topics.
is the Director of Information Technology at the International Epidemiology Institute and Vanderbilt University Medical Center's International Epidemiology Field Station. He has over 20 y of experience in developing and conducting epidemiological studies and health investigations, with a focus on determining risk of cancer and other diseases on populations potentially exposed to environmental and/or occupational radiation. He is also heavily involved in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a large prospective cohort study investigating environmental, genetic and lifestyle risk factors on cardiovascular, renal and pulmonary diseases. He has also published manuscripts on various methodological topics, including geocoding and comprehensive radiation exposure assessment, and is currently developing methods to determining socioeconomic status based on residential history. He earned a BS in Fisheries Science from Frostburg State University and a MS in Ecology from University of Florida.
Christopher N. Passmore
currently holds the position of Vice President of Dosimetry Services at Landauer. Mr. Passmore has more than 26 y of experience in all aspects of dosimetry and radiological protection fields. He is an internationally known expert in dosimetry, radiation monitoring, radiation field characterization, regulatory compliance, and accreditation programs. He has technical responsibility for Landauer’s world leading analytical dosimetry laboratory, including analysis, dose reporting, regulatory compliance, quality control, engineering, and manufacturing. Mr. Passmore also holds the positons of Landauer’s Head of the Approved Dosimetry Services in Canada, United Kingdom, and Ireland. He is a member of the Nagase-Landauer and Beijing – Landauer Board of Directors.
Mr. Passmore serves as a U.S. delegate and technical expert to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) TC45 and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) TC85, where he has been involved in influencing and developing several critical dosimetry standards (IEC 62387, ISO 21099, ISO 15690, ISO 15382, and ISO 14146) and was recently appointed to an ISO Ad Hoc Committee to develop standards on Population Monitoring Following Radiological Accidents. In addition to international standard committees he also serves as a member of the Health Physics Society Standard Committee.
Prior to joining Landauer, Mr. Passmore worked for 10 y in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex managing external and internal dosimetry programs at Rocky Flats Plant (plutonium and uranium facility) and Pantex (nuclear weapon assembly/disassembly). Mr. Passmore was also appointed as assessor for the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program in 1993 and fulfilled this role until joining Landauer in the fall of 2000.
Mr. Passmore holds an MS degree in Health Physics from National Technological University, a BS in Nuclear Engineering from Arizona State University, and a BS degree in both Physics and Engineering from Illinois College. He is also certified in Comprehensive Health Physics by the American Board of Health Physics.
Lawrence N. Rothenberg
received a BA in Physics from the University of Pennsylvania (1962), and an MS (1964) and PhD (1970) in Nuclear Physics from the University of Wisconsin at Madison. After completing a postdoctoral fellowship in Medical Physics in the Department of Medical Physics at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), he joined the professional staff at MSKCC and rose to the rank of Attending Physicist and Clinical Member. He directed the Diagnostic X-Ray Quality Assurance Laboratory for MSKCC and New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center for over 35 y until January 2007 when he was appointed Member Emeritus of MSKCC.
Dr. Rothenberg has been President and Chairman of the Board of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, a founding Board Member of the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP), and Chairman of the Board of Chancellors of the American College of Medical Physics (ACMP). He is a Fellow of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the American College of Radiology, the ACMP, and the Health Physics Society. In 2007, Dr. Rothenberg received the Quimby Lifetime Achievement Award of AAPM.
He served on the original Mammography Committee of NCRP, that was Chaired by Louis Hemplemann and one of whose members was John Boice. Dr. Rothenberg chaired, SC 72, the Mammography Committee of NCRP that produced NCRP Reports No. 85 and 149 and is a Distinguished Emeritus Member of NCRP.
Dr. Rothenberg has concentrated much of his activity in the areas of quality assurance in diagnostic radiology, mammography image quality and dosimetry, computed tomography image quality and dosimetry, and in the education of radiology and radiation oncology residents, physics fellows and residents, and radiologic technologists. He currently lectures on various aspects of imaging physics to radiology, radiation oncology, and medical physics residents at MSKCC, Weill-Cornell New York Presbyterian Medical Center, Harlem Hospital Center, and Jacobi Medical Center. He is the Program Director of the CAMPEP Accredited Medical Imaging Physics residency program at MSKCC and an Adjunct Professor in the CAMPEP Accredited Medical Physics Graduate Program at Columbia University.
RICHARD J. VETTER
is Professor Emeritus and former Radiation Safety Officer at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnosota. He received his BS and MS degrees in Biology from South Dakota State University and his PhD in Health Physics from Purdue University. He is board certified by the American Board of Health Physics and the American Board of Medical Physics. He served on the Purdue University faculty from 1970 to 1980 and the Mayo Clinic staff and faculty from 1980 to 2010. Dr. Vetter is a member of the National Academies Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board, the Government Liaison for the Health Physics Society (HPS), and a member of the Executive Council of the International Radiation Protection Association. He is a Fellow of HPS and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and received the HPS Founders Award.
He is past Editor-in-Chief of Health Physics, past president of HPS, past president of the American Academy of Health Physics, and author or coauthor of more than 220 publications, books, book chapters, and other articles. He served as Vice Chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee for Medical Uses of Isotopes and member of the Radiation Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board. He served on the Board of Directors of NCRP, Chair of the NCRP Nominating Committee, and Chair of three and member of two NCRP scientific committees resulting in four NCRP reports and one NCRP statement. Dr. Vetter has received outstanding alumnus awards from South Dakota State University, the Purdue School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, the Purdue School of Health Sciences, and the Purdue College of Health and Human Sciences.
HELEN A. GROGAN
is President of Cascade Scientific, Inc., an environmental consulting firm. Dr. Grogan received her PhD from Imperial College of Science and Technology at the University of London in 1984 and has more than 25 y of experience in radioecology, environmental dose reconstruction, and the assessment of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. She first worked at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland on the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal for the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra). Dr. Grogan was actively involved in the early international cooperative efforts to test models designed to quantify the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides and other trace substances in the environment.
Validation of computer models developed to predict the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment remains a key interest of hers. In 1989 Dr. Grogan returned to the United Kingdom as a senior consultant to Intera Information Technologies before moving to the United States a few years later, where she has worked closely with Risk Assessment Corporation managing the technical aspects of a wide variety of projects that tend to focus on public health risk from environmental exposure to chemicals and radionuclides. Dr. Grogan has served on committees for the National Academy of Sciences, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the U.S. Environment Protection Agency, and NCRP. She co-edited the text book Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis published by Oxford University Press in July 2008, and authored the chapter on Model Validation.