NCRP Report No. 107, Implementation of the Principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) for Medical and Dental Personnel
NCRP Report No. 107 is based on the fact that modern radiation protection requires that exposures be kept at levels which are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), economic and social factors being taken into account. This Report addresses the implementation of ALARA for occupational exposure of persons working in medicine and dentistry. Following an introduction of concepts, units and quantities, the Report treats characteristics of occupational exposure in medicine and dentistry. The ALARA requirement is then explicated, with consideration given to cost-benefit analysis, difficulties presented by the cost-benefit model of optimization, reference levels in optimization, and guidelines for determining individual reference ranges and collective range as tools for implementing ALARA. After providing a general treatment of a practical approach to implementation of ALARA, the Report goes on to detail guidance for implementation in connection with diagnostic x-ray imaging, nuclear medicine, radiation oncology and dentistry.