Commentary No. 18 – Biological Effects of Modulated Radiofrequency Fields (2003)

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Sort Title : Commentary No. 18

ISBN : ISBN 0-929600-80-0

Scientific Committee :

  • Om P. Gandhi, Chairman
  • John D'Andrea
  • Kenneth R. Foster
  • Arthur W. Guy
  • Don R. Justesen
  • Indira Nair
  • Asher R. Sheppard

Executive Summary

Commentary No. 18 (2003) examines the literature on biological effects of exposure to modulated radiofrequency (RF) energy to determine whether present exposure standards and guidelines need to be modified further to take modulation into account. Modulation occurs in a wide variety of forms specialized for radar, wireless communications, broadcast communications, and industrial processes with the result that many waveforms, pulse widths, spectral properties, and temporal patterns need consideration. In pulse modulation the RF energy is rapidly switched on and off, whereas amplitude modulation produces a continually changing level of RF energy. Frequency-modulated RF energy has signal amplitudes that remain essentially constant, but vary in frequency within some narrowly prescribed range and more closely resembles nonmodulated RF energy than pulsed or amplitude modulated RF fields. For radar, pulses generally have durations measured in fractions of a microsecond to a few microseconds. Intervals between pulses (or pulse groups) are considerably longer resulting in low duty cycle, that is, RF energy is on for a small fraction of time during each period.

Excerpts and Related Information

Table of Contents
Preface

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