SC 6-8 was formed, statement of work finalized, and the project was initiated April 17, 2012. The Committee prepared a peer-review report on documents submitted by DTRA related to the Operation Tomodachi radiation dose assessments produced by DARWG to address potential radiation exposures to U.S. Forces Japan subsequent to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor accidents in 2011. The focus of the peer review was on the adequacy of assumptions, technical approach, and other factors that impact the scientific accuracy of the reports produced.
The Committee’s kickoff meeting was held May 1 and 2, 2012 at NCRP, Bethesda, Maryland. In addition to the Committee members, the meeting was attended by members of DARWG and NCRP staff. As a starting point, the model of an NCRP peer-review document, SC 6-7 final report, was used. A web folder was created and populated by DTRA/DARWG documents, general references, and draft Committee documents. A process for Committee status updates and website postings of interest was developed. An early task was to complete initial comments on DARWG draft post-3/11 technical proposal [DARWG-TP-12-01 Version 1.2 (April 19, 2012)], which was completed on May 16, 2012. A phone conference was held on May 29, 2012 to discuss the approach for initial comments on the DARWG draft technical report “Initial Upper-Bound Radiation Dose Assessments for Shore-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi (DTRA-TR-12-001).
A second Committee meeting was held June 20–21, 2012 at NCRP and was attended by Committee members and NCRP staff. At that meeting, a draft initial comments document on DTRA-TR-12-001was prepared. Committee members provided final comments on the draft on June 23, 2012. The consolidated report was finalized by the Chair and NCRP Staff Consultant and provided to the NCRP Secretariat on June 24, 2012. The NCRP Secretariat provided the completed initial comments report to DTRA on June 25, 2012. On July 13, 2012 the DARWG response to the initial comments on DTRA-TR-12-001 were received. On September 5, 2012 DTRA announced the public Operation Tomodachi Registry website was available. On November 1, 2012 the Committee provided comments on the Operation Tomodachi Registry website to DTRA. The revised DTRA-TR-12-001 was posted on the public website in October 2012.
A third Committee meeting was held October 16–17, 2012 at NCRP and was attended by members of DARWG and NCRP staff. At that meeting, a revised DTRA-TR-12-001 report was provided for follow-on review as well as draft documents DTRA-TR-12-02, DTRA-TR-12-004, DTRA-TR-12-017, and DARWG-TM-12-003. These reports were peer reviewed per the following:
- Radiation Dose Assessments for Shore-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi(DTRA-TR-12-001); the September 30, 2012 revision was reviewed and comments provided to DTRA on November 7, 2012.
- Probabilistic Analysis for Operation Tomodachi Radiation Dose Assessment (DTRA-TR-12-02); a revised version dated October 15, 2012 was reviewed and comments provided to DTRA on December 10, 2012.
- Radiation Internal Monitoring by In Vivo Scanning in Operation Tomodachi(DTRA-TR-12-04); the October 11, 2012 version was reviewed and comments provided to DTRA on December 14, 2012.
- Radiation Dose for Embryo, Fetus and Nursing Infants from Operation Tomodachi (DTRA-TR-12-17); the October 5, 2012 version was reviewed and comments provided to DTRA on January 1, 2013.
- Evaluation of Difference in Response of DOD Portable Instruments and Solid-State Detectors Used by MEXT for Measurement of External Radiations with Attention to the Cosmic Radiation Component (DARWG-TM-12-003); the revised version dated November 28, 2012 was reviewed and comments provided to DTRA on December 29, 2012.
A second phone conference was held on November 29, 2012 during which discussion focused on comments for DTRA-TR-12-002 and DTRA-TR-004 reports. On December 3, 2012, DTRA provided the document “Comparison of Radiation Dose Studies of the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Accident Prepared by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Department of Defense” (DTRA-TR-12-048). On December 21, 2012 a third phone conference was held during which discussion focused on DTRA-TR-12-17 and next steps in the peer review process. During the third phone conference it was decided to integrate any comments the Committee might have on DTRA-TR-12-048 into the Committee’s final report.
On January 1, 2013 the NCRP Secretariat provided the completed informal comments on the partially completed DTRA-TR-12-17 report to DTRA. On February 11, 2013 DTRA provided, for information only, the draft technical report “J-Village Radiological Environment in Operation Tomodachi” (DTRA-TR-12-045), the DTRA document “DOD’s Response to OSTP Fukushima Sharing Forum Questions” (February 7, 2013), and the revised “Radiation Dose Assessments for Shore-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi” (DTRA-TR-12-001 as revised February 2, 2013). Further, DTRA provided a revised draft report “Radiation Dose Assessments for the Embryo, Fetus and Nursing Infant during Operation Tomodachi” (DTRA-TR-12-017, revised) for additional peer review. A fourth Committee meeting was held February 19–20, 2013 at NCRP and was attended by members of DARWG and NCRP staff. At that meeting, DARWG provided a series of presentations regarding the current project schedule and feedback on the use of Committee comments in revising several draft documents. A key issue identified during this meeting of the Committee was the delay in production of the DTRA report “Radiation Doses for Fleet and Air Individuals in Operation Tomodachi” (DTRA-TR-12-041) and the need for further dose information for the Committee to complete comments on the revised draft DTRA-TR-12-017 report. On February 22, 2013, DTRA provided an updated DTRA-TR-12-017 (revised) report with completed dose information for peer review.
On April 1, 2013 DTRA provided SC 6-8 the draft report entitled “Radiation Doses for Fleet-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi” (DTRA-TR-12-041)” for initial review and comments. NCRP held three webinar/teleconferences and provided initial comments back to DTRA prior to April 16, 2013. DTRA then provided NCRP a revised draft on May 8, 2013. NCRP provided final comments to DTRA on June 13, 2013. On September 30, 2013 DTRA published DTRA-TR-12-041 and provided a document to NCRP that listed how NCRP comments had been addressed.
On April 2, 2013,NCRP provided final comments on the renamed report “Radiation Dose Assessments for Embryo, Fetus, and Nursing Infant during Operation Tomodachi” (DTRA-TR-12-017). In August DTRA published DTRA-TR-12-017 and provided a document to NCRP that listed how NCRP comments had been addressed.
On September 4, 2013 DTRA published “Radiation Internal Monitoring by In Vivo Scanning in Operation Tomodachi,” (DTRA-TR-12-004) and provided a document to NCRP that listed how NCRP comments had been addressed.On September 30, 2013 DTRA published “Radiation Dose Assessments for Fleet-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi,” (DTRA-TR-12-041) and provided a document to NCRP that listed how NCRP comments had been addressed.
On October 1, 2013 DTRA published “Operation Tomodachi Registry: Radiation Data Compendium” (DTRA-TR-13-044) with a copy to the NCRP.
DTRA provided a draft of Radiogenic Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment in Operation Tomodachi (DARWG-TM-12-04) on March 14, 2014 with a follow-up revised version on March 19, 2014. DTRA is continuing the work of DARWG in calendar year 2014. A teleconference was held on March 28, 2014 to discuss the key issues associated with that report. The Committee’s consolidated draft response to DARWG-TM-12-04 was completed and submitted to DTRA on April 29, 2014.
DTRA provided the final version of Evaluation of Differences in Response of DOD Portable Instruments and Solid-State Detectors used by MEXT for Measurement of External Radiations with Attention to the Cosmic Radiation Component (DTRA-TR-14-001) on April 11, 2014. DTRA provided for general comment by the Committee a document, NCRP Citations in draft ASD (HA)’s Report to Congress on USS Ronald Reagan Sailors, on April 17, 2014. DTRA provided to Congress on June 19, 2014 the final report to the Congressional Defense Committees in response to the joint explanatory statement accompanying the DOD Appropriations Act, 2014, page 90, “Radiation Exposure” with a copy to the Committee. DTRA provided an updated schedule of DARWG activities on July 31, 2014.
A response to the NCRP comments on DARWG-TM-15-04, a document on Lessons Learned from Operation Tomodachi for information only is expected to be provided in the first quarter of 2015. DTRA completed the report Radiogenic Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment for Operation Tomodachi (DTRA-TR-14-068) before the end of 2014. The newly developed document Temporal Correlation Analysis of OTR Website Visits (DARWG-TM-15-03) was published on December 1, 2014, with a copy expected to be provided to NCRP.
On June 10, 2015, DTRA provided NCRP (for information only) a copy of a new document Analysis of Air Activity Concentration Data Collected in the Kanto Plain, Japan, Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident (DRTRA-TR-15-008). The Committee is anticipating completion of an NCRP summary document on the Operation Tomodachi peer review by the beginning of the first quarter of 2016.
This work was funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.
The membership of SC 6-8 is:
JOHN E. TILL
is President of Risk Assessment Corporation. He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy and served in the U.S. Navy Nuclear Submarine Program and retired a Rear Admiral in the U.S. Naval Reserve in 1999. Dr. Till received an MS from Colorado State University in 1972 and a PhD from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1976. In 1977 Dr. Till formed Risk Assessment Corporation to perform research on radionuclides released to the environment by nuclear facilities. His career has focused on the development of methods to estimate dose and risk to humans from radionuclides and chemicals in the environment. He has served on committees for the National Academy of Sciences, the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. He has published widely in the open literature including the first textbook on radiological risk assessment published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1983 and an updated version, Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis (2008).
In 1995, Dr. Till received the E.O. Lawrence Award from the U.S. Department of Energy in the field of Environmental Science and Technology. He presented the Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture at the annual meeting of the NCRP in 2013. In addition to his scientific work, Dr. Till also owns and operates his family farm, growing corn and soybeans near Neeses, South Carolina.
A. IULIAN APOSTOAEI
is a researcher at SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., Center for Risk Analysis, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and an adjunct professor in Nuclear Engineering Department at the University of Tennessee, in Knoxville, Tennessee. He has more 20 y of experience in various aspects of radiological assessment. He served on the NCRP scientific committee in charge of the NCRP Report No. 164 on Uncertainties in Internal Radiation Dose Assessment. In support of epidemiologic studies performed by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Dr. Apostoaei has developed computational tools for estimation of doses from intakes of plutonium and uranium by analysis of bioassay data, using the most recent International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models.
Dr. Apostoaei was involved in the historical dose reconstruction project for members of the public at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, sponsored by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. He also contributed to the reconstruction of doses and estimation of risk of cancer for individuals exposed to historic releases of 131I from the Oak Ridge Reservation, as well as the estimation of radiation doses and risk of cancer from exposure to various radionuclides released to the Columbia River from Hanford Nuclear Facilities and to the Clinch River from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As part of these projects, Dr. Apostoaei determined the uncertainties in doses per unit intake from ingestion of 131I, 137Cs, 106Ru, and 60Co by using the most recent ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric models and developed risk coefficients for estimation of risk of thyroid and other cancers.
Dr. Apostoaei participated in the update of the Radioepidemiological Tables for the Radiation Epidemiology Branch of the National Cancer Institute, and is one of the main authors of the Interactive Radio-Epidemiological Program (IREP). IREP is currently used to estimate the probability of cancer causation for nuclear workers from exposure to radiation.
Dr. Apostoaei has been involved in various international projects for testing radiological assessment models using Chernobyl accident data, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and has participated in validation exercises for dosimetry and environmental transport models applied to reconstruction of 137Cs doses to people from Czech Republic and Finland exposed in the aftermath of Chernobyl accident, and 131I dose to individuals exposed to releases from the Hanford Nuclear Facility.
WILLIAM E. KENNEDY, JR.
has extensive experience as a project manager, task leader, and individual contributor covering a broad range of health physics and nuclear engineering topics. He received his BS and MS degrees in Nuclear Engineering from Kansas State University. Mr. Kennedy has been involved in the development of environmental pathway and radiation dosimetry models used to assess potential health and environmental impacts that resulted from releases of radionuclides to the environment.
He specializes in the use of these models in environmental dose reconstruction, radioactive materials transport, radioactive waste disposal, and evaluation of nuclear facility operating practices. Over the past 37 y, Mr. Kennedy has led and contributed to a variety of projects for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and private industry. He has been involved with development of the technical basis for revised standards and regulations, and serves as the chair of ANSI/HPS N13.12, Surface and volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance. He served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria, and was a member of the IAEA Advisory Groups to evaluate the Derivation of Exempt Quantities for Application to Terrestrial Waste Disposal and Derivation of Exempt Quantities for Recycle of Materials from Nuclear Facilities.
He was an invited lecturer for IAEA training courses on Management of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Power Plants at Argonne National Laboratory; on Safety Assessment Modeling for Low and Intermediate Radwastes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in Cairo, Egypt; and on Environmental Monitoring in Kiev, Ukraine. In 1990, he received the Health Physics Society's (HPS) prestigious Elda E. Anderson Award. He served as a member of the HPS Board of Directors from 1998 through 2001 and was selected as a fellow of the society in 2002. He was a member of the U.S. delegation to the 10th Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association in Hiroshima, Japan.
|J.R. Mercier, Advisor|
|M.P. Grissom, Staff Consultant|